Table 1: Pharmacological treatments to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion. AMP; activated protein kinase, AMPK; heme oxygenase-1, HO-1; interleukin, IL; nitric oxide, NO; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, PPAR-α; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPAR-γ; reactive oxygen species, ROS; tumour necrosis factor TNF;. xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase, XDH/XOD.

Pharmacological therapy
Liver transplantation and warm hepatic ischemia
DrugSpecieExperimental modelIschemic timeEffect

Chlorpromazine (Ca2+ channel antagonist)RatLiver transplantation24 h↑ ATP, mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in lipid metabolism
Tauroursodeoxy-cholate RatLiver transplantation8 h Endoplasmic reticulum stress
Warm ischemia + hepatectomy1 h
Cbz-Val-Phe methyl ester (calpain inhibitor)RatLiver transplantation24, 40 h Calpain activation and SEC apoptotic
Tocopherol (antioxidant) RatLiver transplantation5 h Lipid peroxidation, SEC damage and microcirculatory disturbances
Warm ischemia45, 90 min
Glutathione (antioxidant) RatWarm ischemia60, 90 min Microcirculatory disturbances, ↑ detoxification of ROS,
Liver transplantation24 h
SOD (antioxidant) RatWarm ischemia 45 min and 1 h Microcirculatory disturbances and leukocyte accumulation
Liver transplantation 8 h
Allopurinol (XOD inhibitor) Rat,  MiceLiver transplantation8, 16 h Oxidative stress
Warm ischemia30, 60 min
Bucillamine (antioxidant)RatLiver transplantation24 h Oxidative stress
AMPK activatorsRatWarm ischemia90 min↑ NO, and ATP
AdenosineRatWarm ischemia90 min↑ NO
N-acetylcysteine (glutathione precursor)RatLiver transplantation24 h Microcirculatory disturbances
L-arginine (NO precursor) RatLiver transplantation18 h↑ ATP, ↑ NO, neutrophil accumulation
Warm ischemia45 min
Spermine NONOate (NO donor)RatWarm ischemia60, 90 min IL-1α and oxidative stress
FK 409 (NO donor)RatLiver transplantation80 min SEC damage, IL-1 ↑ HSP, and IL-10
EHNA (adenosine deaminase inhibitor)RatLiver transplantation24, 44 h↑ Interstitial adenosine, leukocytes rolling and microcirculatory disturbances
CGS-21680 (adenosine A2 receptor agonist)RatLiver transplantation30 h SEC killing, ↑ cAMP
Anti-TNF antiserum RatLiver transplantation6, 24 h TNF and leukocyte accumulation
Warm ischemia90 min
FR167653 (IL-1β and TNFα suppressor)RatLiver transplantation48 h TNF and IL1-α and Kupffer cell activation
IL-10RatWarm ischemia60 min IL-1 and oxidative stress
Anti-ICAM-1 RatLiver transplantation24 h Adherence of leukocytes in postsinusoidal venules
Warm ischemia1 h
PSGL-1 (P-selectin blocker)RatLiver transplantation6 h Neutrophil infiltration, INFγ, TNFα and iNOS
CS1 peptides (FN-α4β1 interaction blocker)RatLiver transplantation4 h Neutrophil and lymphocyte T infiltration, TNFα and iNOS
sCR1 (complement inhibitor)RatLiver transplantation24 h Microcirculatory disturbances, leukocyte adhesion
Sodium ozagrel (thromboxane synthase inhibitor)PigLiver transplantation8 h ET-1
Glycine (Kupfer cell modulator)RatLiver transplantation24 h TNFα and neutrophil accumulation
GdCl3 (Kupffer cell blocker)RatLiver transplantation24 h TNFα and neutrophil accumulation,
Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase 3 and 7 inhibitor)RatLiver transplantation16 h Apoptosis, ↑ microvascular perfusion and Bcl-2
Cobalt-protoporphyrin IX (HO-1 inducer)RatLiver transplantation6 h T-cell and macrophages infiltration
ANP (vasodilating peptide)RatLiver transplantation24 h Apoptosis, ↑ PI3K/Akt
Hemin (HO-1 inducer)RatLiver transplantation6 h↑ Bcl-2
Cerulenin (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) MiceWarm ischemia15 min UCP2, ↑ ATP
Liver transplantation80 min
Doxorubicin (heat shock proteins inducer)RatLiver transplantation48 h TNFα, MIP-2 and NFκB
Catalase and derivativesMiceWarm ischemia30 min Oxidative stress
Rosiglitazone (PPAR-α agonist)RatWarm ischemia30, 60, 90 min↑ Autophagy, cytokines
Apocynin (NAPH oxidase inhibitor)MiceWarm ischemia30 min Oxidative stress
TBC-1269 (PAN selectin)MiceWarm ischemia90 min Inflammatory response, ERK 1/2
Melatonin (hormone)RatWarm ischemia40 min IKK and JNK pathways
Ascorbate (ROS scavenger)RatWarm ischemia30 min Apoptosis
FK506 (Immunosuppressant)RatWarm ischemia60, 90 min TNF
Gabexate mesilate (Protease inhibitor)RatWarm ischemia60 min Leukocyte activation, TNFα
OP-2507 (Analogue of prostacyclin)RatWarm ischemia60 min Microcirculatory disturbances
WY-14643 (PPAR-α agonist)RatWarm ischemia60 min Inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress
α-Lipoic acid (Antioxidant)RatWarm ischemia90 min Apoptosis, ↑ liver regeneration
Sirolimus (Immunossupressant)RatWarm ischemia + hepatectomy60 min Linfocytes
IL-1ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist)RatWarm ischemia + hepatectomy90 min TNF and oxidative stress
FK 3311 (Cox-2 Inhibitor)DogWarm ischemia60 min Cox-2, neutrophil infiltration