Table 4: Ischemic preconditioning as a surgical strategy to protect livers against ischemia/reperfusion. Interleukin-10, IL-10; interleukin-1β, IL-1β; nitric oxide, NO; endothelin, ET; reactive oxygen species, ROS; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, PPAR-α; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPAR-γ; xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase, XDH/XOD; superoxide dismutase, SOD; reduced glutathione, GSH; tumour necrosis factor TNF; heme oxygenase-1, HO-1; heat-shock protein 72, HSP72; protein kinase C, PKC; AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK; renin-angiotensin system, RAS.

Surgical strategy-ischemic preconditioning
Liver transplantation and warm hepatic ischemia
SpecieExperimental modelIschemic timeEffects

Rat

Rat

Mice

Mice

Mouse

Rat

Rat

Rat

Rat

Pig
Liver transplantation

Liver transplantation (steatotic liver)

Warm ischemia

Warm ischemia (old mice)

Warm ischemia (cirrohtic liver)

Warm ischemia

Warm ischemia (old rat)

Warm ischemia (steatotic liver)

Warm ischemia + hepatectomy

Warm ischemia + hepatectomy
16, 24, 30 h

4 h

75, 120 min

60 min

60, 75 min

30, 60, 90, 120 min

45 min

45, 60, 75 min

30, 45, 60, 90 min

120 min
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