Table 1: Comparison table of critical factors at play in nanotoxicology versus toxicity of bulk material of identical composition (reproduced from: [4]).

Bulk propertiesNanoscale properties

Chemical compositionStructure (nanostructure)
Dose (mass concentration)Particle concentration
Exposure routeSize distributions
ReactivityParticle numbers
ConductivityAggregation/agglomeration
MorphologySurface adsorb ability
Physical formSurface area
ImpuritiesSurface charge
SolubilitySelf-assembly
Quantum effects