- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 437920, 7 pages
The Plasminogen System in Regulating Stem Cell Mobilization
Joseph J. Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology and Departments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Received 11 April 2012; Accepted 5 June 2012
Academic Editor: David M. Waisman
Copyright © 2012 Yanqing Gong and Jane Hoover-Plow. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. H. Cottler-Fox, T. Lapidot, I. Petit et al., “Stem cell mobilization,” Hematology: American Society of Hematology, Education Program, pp. 419–437, 2003.
- M. Al-Jurf, F. Aranha, C. Annasetti et al., “Allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell compared with bone marrow transplantation in the management of hematologic malignancies: an individual patient data meta-analysis of nine randomized trials,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 5074–5087, 2005.
- J. Hoover-Plow and Y. Gong, “Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy,” Journal of Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 8, pp. 99–113, 2012.
- P. Stiff, R. Gingrich, S. Luger et al., “A randomized phase 2 study of PBPC mobilization by stem cell factor and filgrastim in heavily pretreated patients with Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 471–481, 2000.
- M. Holm, “Not all healthy donors mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells sufficiently after G-CSF administration to allow for subsequent CD34 purification of the leukapheresis product,” Journal of Hematotherapy, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 111–113, 1998.
- P. Anderlini, D. Przepiorka, C. Seong et al., “Factors affecting mobilization of CD34+ cells in normal donors treated with filgrastim,” Transfusion, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 507–512, 1997.
- F. J. Castellino and V. A. Ploplis, “Structure and function of the plasminogen/plasmin system,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 647–654, 2005.
- B. Heissig, M. Ohki-Koizumi, Y. Tashiro, I. Gritli, K. Sato-Kusubata, and K. Hattori, “New functions of the fibrinolytic system in bone marrow cell-derived angiogenesis,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 131–137, 2012.
- D. Collen, “Ham-Wasserman lecture: role of the plasminogen system in fibrin-homeostasis and tissue remodeling,” Hematology: American Society of Hematology, Education Program, pp. 1–9, 2001.
- N. M. Andronicos, E. I. Chen, N. Baik et al., “Proteomics-based discovery of a novel, structurally unique, and developmentally regulated plasminogen receptor, Plg-RKT, a major regulator of cell surface plasminogen activation,” Blood, vol. 115, no. 7, pp. 1319–1330, 2010.
- J. Hoover-Plow and L. Yuen, “Plasminogen binding is increased with adipocyte differentiation,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 284, no. 2, pp. 389–394, 2001.
- B. Nervi, D. C. Link, and J. F. DiPersio, “Cytokines and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 690–705, 2006.
- H. R. Lijnen, “Plasmin and matrix metalloproteinases in vascular remodeling,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 324–333, 2001.
- E. F. Plow, T. Herren, A. Redlitz, L. A. Miles, and J. L. Hoover-Plow, “The cell biology of the plasminogen system,” FASEB Journal, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 939–945, 1995.
- E. M. Salonen, A. Zitting, and A. Vaheri, “Laminin interacts with plasminogen and its tissue-type activator,” FEBS Letters, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 29–32, 1984.
- E. M. Salonen, O. Saksela, and T. Vartio, “Plasminogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator bind to immobilized fibronectin,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 260, no. 22, pp. 12302–12307, 1985.
- R. L. Silverstein, L. L. K. Leung, P. C. Harpel, and R. L. Nachman, “Complex formation of platelet thrombospondin with plasminogen. Modulation of activation by tissue activator,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 1625–1633, 1984.
- Y. Okada, Y. Gonoji, K. Naka et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (92-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase) from HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Purification and activation of the precursor and enzymic properties,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 30, pp. 21712–21719, 1992.
- C. He, S. M. Wilhelm, A. P. Pentland et al., “Tissue cooperation in a proteolytic cascade activating human interstitial collagenase,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 2632–2636, 1989.
- Y. Gong, E. Hart, A. Shchurin, and J. Hoover-Plow, “Inflammatory macrophage migration requires MMP-9 activation by plasminogen in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 9, pp. 3012–3024, 2008.
- B. Heissig, L. R. Lund, H. Akiyama et al., “The plasminogen fibrinolytic pathway is required for hematopoietic regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 658–670, 2007.
- M. Tjwa, R. Moura, L. Moons et al., “Fibrinolysis-independent role of plasmin and its activators in the haematopoietic recovery after myeloablation,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 11-12, pp. 4587–4595, 2009.
- M. Tjwa, S. Janssens, and P. Carmeliet, “Plasmin therapy enhances mobilization of HPCs after G-CSF,” Blood, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 4048–4050, 2008.
- M. Tjwa, N. Sidenius, R. Moura et al., “Membrane-anchored uPAR regulates the proliferation, marrow pool size, engraftment, and mobilization of mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 1008–1018, 2009.
- Y. Gong, Y. Fan, and J. Hoover-Plow, “Plasminogen regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4-Mediated hematopoietic stem cell mobilization by activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 2035–2043, 2011.
- L. M. Pelus, H. Bian, A. G. King, and S. Fukuda, “Neutrophil-derived MMP-9 mediates synergistic mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by the combination of G-CSF and the chemokines GROβ/CXCL2 and GROβT/CXCL2δ4,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 110–119, 2004.
- I. Petit, M. Szyper-Kravitz, A. Nagler et al., “G-CSF induces stem cell mobilization by decreasing bone marrow SDF-1 and up-regulating CXCR4,” Nature Immunology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 687–694, 2002.
- M. J. Christopher, F. Liu, M. J. Hilton, F. Long, and D. C. Link, “Suppression of CXCL12 production by bone marrow osteoblasts is a common and critical pathway for cytokine-induced mobilization,” Blood, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 1331–1339, 2009.
- V. Ellis, N. Behrendt, and K. Dano, “Plasminogen activation by receptor-bound urokinase: a kinetic study with both cell-associated and isolated receptor,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 266, no. 19, pp. 12752–12758, 1991.
- N. Behrendt, E. Ronne, and K. Dano, “The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface,” Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler, vol. 376, no. 5, pp. 269–279, 1995.
- H. W. Smith and C. J. Marshall, “Regulation of cell signalling by uPAR,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 23–36, 2010.
- H. A. Chapman and Y. Wei, “Protease crosstalk with integrins: the urokinase receptor paradigm,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 124–129, 2001.
- F. Blasi and P. Carmeliet, “uPAR: a versatile signalling orchestrator,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 932–943, 2002.
- F. Blasi, “uPA, uPAR, PAI-I: key intersection of proteolytic, adhesive and chemotactic highways?” Immunology Today, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 415–417, 1997.
- S. M. Carlin, T. J. Resink, M. Tamm, and M. Roth, “Urokinase signal transduction and its role in cell migration,” FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 195–202, 2005.
- C. Selleri, N. Montuori, P. Ricci et al., “Involvement of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 2198–2205, 2005.
- C. Selleri, N. Montuori, P. Ricci et al., “In vivo activity of the cleaved form of soluble urokinase receptor: a new hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilizer,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 22, pp. 10885–10890, 2006.
- F. Blasi, “The urokinase receptor in hematopoietic stem cells mobilization,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 17, no. 19, pp. 1911–1913, 2011.
- K. C. Vallabhaneni, S. Tkachuk, Y. Kiyan et al., “Urokinase receptor mediates mobilization, migration, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 113–121, 2011.
- A. Andolfo, W. R. English, M. Resnati, G. Murphy, F. Blasi, and N. Sidenius, “Metalloproteases cleave the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in the D1-D2 linker region and expose epitopes not present in the intact soluble receptor,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 298–306, 2002.
- N. Beaufort, D. Leduc, J. C. Rousselle, A. Namane, M. Chignard, and D. Pidard, “Plasmin cleaves the juxtamembrane domain and releases truncated species of the urokinase receptor (CD87) from human bronchial epithelial cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 574, no. 1–3, pp. 89–94, 2004.
- F. Furlan, S. Orlando, C. Laudanna et al., “The soluble D2D388-274 fragment of the urokinase receptor inhibits monocyte chemotaxis and integrin-dependent cell adhesion,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 117, no. 14, pp. 2909–2916, 2004.
- T. Tarui, A. P. Mazar, D. B. Cines, and Y. Takada, “Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (CD87) is a ligand for integrins and mediates cell-cell interaction,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 6, pp. 3983–3990, 2001.
- T. Fietz, K. Hattori, E. Thiel, and B. Heissig, “Increased soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment do not predict successful progenitor cell mobilization in vivo,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 3408–3409, 2006.
- C. D. Madsen, G. M. S. Ferraris, A. Andolfo, O. Cunningham, and N. Sidenius, “uPAR-induced cell adhesion and migration: vitronectin provides the key,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 177, no. 5, pp. 927–939, 2007.
- H. W. Smith, P. Marra, and C. J. Marshall, “uPAR promotes formation of the p130Cas-Crk complex to activate Rac through DOCK180,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 182, no. 4, pp. 777–790, 2008.
- Y. Wei, M. Lukashev, D. I. Simon et al., “Regulation of integrin function by the urokinase receptor,” Science, vol. 273, no. 5281, pp. 1551–1555, 1996.
- P. Chaurasia, J. A. Aguirre-Ghiso, O. D. Liang, H. Gardsvoll, M. Ploug, and L. Ossowski, “A region in urokinase plasminogen receptor domain III controlling a functional association with α5β1 integrin and tumor growth,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 21, pp. 14852–14863, 2006.
- F. Zhang, C. C. Tom, M. C. Kugler et al., “Distinct ligand binding sites in integrin α3β1 regulate matrix adhesion and cell-cell contact,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 177–188, 2003.
- Y. Wei, D. A. Waltz, N. Rao, R. J. Drummond, S. Rosenberg, and H. A. Chapman, “Identification of the urokinase receptor as an adhesion receptor for vitronectin,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 51, pp. 32380–32388, 1994.
- A. E. May, S. M. Kanse, L. R. Lund, R. H. Gisler, B. A. Imhof, and K. T. Preissner, “Urokinase receptor (CD87) regulates leukocyte recruitment via β2 integrins in vivo,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 188, no. 6, pp. 1029–1037, 1998.
- A. E. May, F. J. Neumann, A. Schömig, and K. T. Preissner, “VLA-4 (α4β1) engagement defines a novel activation pathway for β2 integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion involving the urokinase receptor,” Blood, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 506–513, 2000.
- L. M. Scott, G. V. Priestley, and T. Papayannopoulou, “Deletion of α4 integrins from adult hematopoietic cells reveals roles in homeostasis, regeneration, and homing,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 9349–9360, 2003.
- R. W. Hurley, J. B. McCarthy, and C. M. Verfaillie, “Direct adhesion to bone marrow stroma via fibronectin receptors inhibits hematopoietic progenitor proliferation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 511–519, 1995.
- F. Prosper, D. Stroncek, J. B. McCarthy, and C. M. Verfaillie, “Mobolization and homing of peripheral blood progenitors is related to reversible downregulation of α4β1 integrin expression and function,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 101, no. 11, pp. 2456–2467, 1998.
- N. Montuori, M. V. Carriero, S. Salzano, G. Rossi, and P. Ragno, “The cleavage of the urokinase receptor regulates its multiple functions,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 49, pp. 46932–46939, 2002.
- M. Resnati, I. Pallavicini, J. M. Wang et al., “The fibrinolytic receptor for urokinase activates the G protein-coupled chemotactic receptor FPRL1/LXA4R,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 1359–1364, 2002.
- M. R. Gyetko, R. F. Todd III, C. C. Wilkinson, and R. G. Sitrin, “The urokinase receptor is required for human monocyte chemotaxis in vitro,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1380–1387, 1994.
- Y. Le, P. M. Murphy, and J. M. Wang, “Formyl-peptide receptors revisited,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 541–548, 2002.
- Y. Le, W. Shen, B. Li, W. Gong, N. M. Dunlop, and J. M. Wang, “A new insight into the role of “old” chemotactic peptide receptors FPR and FPRL1: down-regulation of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4,” Forum, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 299–314, 1999.
- B. Q. Li, M. A. Wetzel, J. A. Mikovits et al., “The synthetic peptide WKYMVm attenuates the function of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 through activation of formyl peptide receptor-like 1,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 2941–2947, 2001.
- J. P. Lévesque, J. Hendy, Y. Takamatsu, P. J. Simmons, and L. J. Bendall, “Disruption of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemotactic interaction during hematopoietic stem cell mobilization induced by gcsf or cyclophosphamide,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 187–196, 2003.