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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 464532, 16 pages
Review Article

The Role of Costimulatory Receptors of the Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor Family in Atherosclerosis

Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, Division of Clinical Sciences, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK

Received 31 August 2011; Accepted 11 October 2011

Academic Editor: Byoung S. Kwon

Copyright © 2012 Ricardo F. Antunes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by both the innate and adaptive immune responses. T lymphocytes, that together with B cells are the cellular effectors of the adaptive immune system, are currently endowed with crucial roles in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Costimulatory receptors are a class of molecules expressed by T lymphocytes that regulate the activation of T cells and the generation of effector T-cell responses. In this review we present the roles of costimulatory receptors of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily in atherosclerosis and discuss the implications for future therapies that could be used to specifically modulate the immune response of pathogenic T cells in this disease.