Table 1: Expression and key features of costimulatory TNFR family members in T cells.

Receptor/ligandReceptor distributionLigand distributionMain effects on T cellsRef.

CD40/CD40LAPCs (DCs, B cells, macrophages)Activated T cells
Activated DCs
Promotes T-cell activation by increasing costimulatory ligands on APCs[43, 44]

OX40/OX40LActivated T cells
Treg cells
NK cells
NKT cells
Neutrophils
APCs (DCs, B cells, and macrophages)
Activated T cells
NK cells
Activated endothelial cells
Smooth muscle cells
Mast cells
Prolongs T-cell clonal expansion
Increases production of cytokines from effector T cells
Promotes the survival of activated T cells
Inhibits the development and suppressive function of Treg cells (?)
[70, 71]

4-1BB/4-1BBLActivated T cells
Monocytes
DCs
NK cells
NKT cells
Neutrophils
Endothelial cells
APCs (DCs, B cells, and macrophages)
Activated T cells
Promotes the activation, survival, and function of effector T cells[94]

CD27/CD70Naive T cells
Thymocytes
Memory B cells
NK cells
APCs (DCs and B cells)
Activated T cells
Regulates the generation of effector T cells by enhancing the proliferation and survival of activated T cells[118, 119]

CD30/CD30LActivated T cells
B cells
NK cells
Eosinophils
B cells
Activated T cells
Increases proliferation and cytokine production of T cells[128130]

HVEM/LIGHTResting T cells
DCs
Monocytes
Monocytes
Immature DCs
Activated T cells
NK cells
Promotes T-cell activation and cytokine production[134, 135]

GITR/GITRLResting and activated T cells
Constitutive
Expression in Treg cells
APCs (DCs, B cells, and macrophages)Enhances the proliferation and survival of activated T cells
Potentiates the production of cytokines from effector T cells
Role in suppressive function of Treg cells
[98, 139, 141, 142]