Table 1: Metabolic engineering of resveratrol in yeast.

Microorganisms/speciesIntroduced gene(s)Origin of genes Resveratrol quantityReferences

Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica PAL/TAL, C4H, 4CL, STS Rhodotorula glutinis (PAL/TAL), Streptomyces coelicolor (4CL), Vitis sp. (STS)1.46 mg/L[110]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae PAL, C4H, 4CL, STS Arabidopsis thaliana (PAL, C4H, 4CL), Rheum tataricum (STS)not detectable[111]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAL, 4CL::STS fusion protein Rhodobacter sphaeroides (TAL), Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)5.25 mg/L [116]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4CL, STS Populus trichocarpa×Populus deltoides (4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)1.45 mg/L[114]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4CL, STS Nicotiana tabacum (4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)5.8 mg/L[115]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4CL1, STS Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)262–391 mg/L[117]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with phenylalaninePAL, CPR, C4H, 4CL, STS Populus trichocarpa×P. deltoides (PAL, CPRa) Glycine max (C4H, 4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)0.29 mg/L[113]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with para-coumaric acidPAL, CPR, C4H, 4CL, STS Populus trichocarpa×P. deltoides (PAL, CPR) Glycine max (C4H, 4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)0.31 mg/L[113]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAL, 4CL::STS fusion protein, araE transporter Rhodobacter sphaeroides (TAL), Escherichia coli (araE), Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS)3.1 mg/L 1.27 mg/L (without the araE transporter)[119]
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAL, 4CL::STS fusion protein Rhodobacter sphaeroides (TAL), Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL), Vitis vinifera (STS) 14.4 mg/L[120]

aCPR: Cytochrome P450 Reductase.