About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 589569, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/589569
Review Article

Oral Lichenoid Contact Lesions to Mercury and Dental Amalgam—A Review

1Oral Medicine Unit, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 9RT, UK
2Oral Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical & Diagnostic Sciences, King’s College London Dental Institute and WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer, Bessemer Road, London SE5 9RS, UK

Received 3 February 2012; Accepted 19 March 2012

Academic Editor: Jose G. Dorea

Copyright © 2012 Helen McParland and Saman Warnakulasuriya. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. J. Jensen, “Maximum contents of mercury in dental silver amalgams,” Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 1985. View at Scopus
  2. Office of Health Economics, Compedium of Health Statistics, Office of Health Economics, London, UK, 7th edition, 1989.
  3. http://thewealthydentist.com/surveyresults/16_mercuryamalgam_results.htm.
  4. M. Hanson and J. Pleva, “The dental amalgam issue. A review,” Experientia, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 9–22, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs, “Dental amalgam update on safety concerns,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 129, pp. 494–503, 1998.
  6. S. B. Corbin and W. G. Kohn, “The benefits and risks of dental amalgam: current findings reviewed,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 381–388, 1994. View at Scopus
  7. B. M. Eley, “The future of dental amalgam: a review of the literature Part 6: possible harmful effects of mercury from dental amalgam,” British Dental Journal, vol. 182, no. 12, pp. 455–459, 1997. View at Scopus
  8. M. Levy, “Dental amalgam: toxicological evaluation and health risk assessment,” Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 667–671, 1995. View at Scopus
  9. K. O. Frykholm, “On mercury from dental amalgam;its toxic and allergenic effects and some comments on occupational hygiene,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 15, supplement 22, pp. 1–108, 1957.
  10. J. M. Richards and P. J. Warren, “Mercury vapour released during the removal of old amalgam restorations,” British Dental Journal, vol. 159, no. 7, pp. 231–232, 1985. View at Scopus
  11. M. J. Vimy and F. L. Lorscheider, “Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury: estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1072–1075, 1985. View at Scopus
  12. A. Berglund, “Estimation by a 24-hour study of the daily dose of intra-oral mercury vapor inhaled after release from dental amalgam,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 1646–1651, 1990. View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Mackert Jr., “Factors affecting estimation of dental amalgam mercury exposure from measurements of mercury vapor levels in intra-oral and expired air,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 1775–1780, 1987. View at Scopus
  14. T. W. Clarkson, L. Magos, and G. J. Myers, “The toxicology of mercury—current exposures and clinical manifestations,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 18, pp. 1731–1737, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Environmental Protection Agency, Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure to Methylmercury, Integrated Information System, Greenbelt, Md, USA, 2001.
  16. http://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/publications/factsheets/amalgam.htm.
  17. P. Holmstrup, “Reactions of the oral mucosa related to silver amalgam: a review,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. A. Cawson and E. W. Odell, Eds., Cawson’s Essentials of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Churchill Livingston, London, UK, 2008.
  19. M. Jolly, A. J. Moule, R. W. Bryant, and S. Freeman, “Amalgam-related chronic ulceration of oral mucosa,” British Dental Journal, vol. 160, no. 12, pp. 434–437, 1986. View at Scopus
  20. J. Bolewska, P. Holmstrup, B. Moller-Madsen, B. Kenrad, and G. Danscher, “Amalgam associated mercury accumulations in normal oral mucosa, oralmucosal lesions of lichen planus and contact lesions associated with amalgam,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 1990. View at Scopus
  21. P. Holmstrup, “Oral mucosa and skin reactions related to amalgam,” Advances in Dental Research, vol. 6, pp. 120–124, 1992. View at Scopus
  22. J. Banoczy, B. Roed Petersen, J. J. Pindborg, and J. Inovay, “Clinical and histologic studies on electrogalvanically induced oral white lesions,” Oral Surgery Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 319–323, 1979. View at Scopus
  23. K. Merritt, International Workshop: Biocompatibility, Toxicity and Hypersensitivity to Alloy Systems Used in Dentistry, 1986.
  24. M. H. Thornhill, M. N. Pemberton, R. K. Simmons, and E. D. Theaker, “Amalgam-contact hypersensitivity lesions and oral lichen planus,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 291–299, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. H. Thornhill, “Immune mechanisms in oral lichen planus,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 174–177, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. R. Eversole, “Immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus and recurrent aphthous stomatitis,” Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 284–294, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. R. Porter, A. Kirby, I. Olsen, and W. Barnett, “Immunological aspects of dermal and oral lichen planus; a review,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, vol. 83, pp. 358–366, 1997.
  28. P. B. Sugerman, N. W. Savage, L. J. Walsh et al., “The pathogenesis of oral lichen planus,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 350–365, 2002. View at Scopus
  29. S. Enestrom and P. Hultman, “Does amalgam affect the immune system? A controversial issue,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 180–203, 1995. View at Scopus
  30. M. Jontell and P. Holmstrup, “Red and white lesions of the oral mucosa,” in Burket’s Oral Medicine, M. S. Greenberg, M. Glick, and J. A. Ship, Eds., pp. 77–78, BC Decker, Hamilton, Canada, 2008.
  31. M. Kaga, N. S. Seale, T. Hanawa, J. L. Ferracane, and T. Okabe, “Cytotoxicity of amalgams,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 1221–1224, 1988. View at Scopus
  32. I. M. C. Lundstrom, “Allergy and corrosion of dental materials in patients with oral lichen planus,” International Journal of Oral Surgery, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 1984. View at Scopus
  33. J. A. Yiannias, R. A. El-Azhary, J. H. Hand, S. Y. Pakzad, and R. S. Rogers, “Relevant contact sensitivities in patients with the diagnosis of oral lichen planus,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 177–182, 2000. View at Scopus
  34. J. Laine, K. Kalimo, and R. P. Happonen, “Contact allergy to dental restorative materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 141–146, 1997. View at Scopus
  35. P. O. Ostman, G. Anneroth, and A. Skoglund, “Oral lichen planus lesions in contact with amalgam fillings: a clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical study,” Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 172–179, 1994. View at Scopus
  36. M. Pecegueiro, M. F. Sachse, J. Amaro, P. Farinha, and I. Fonseca, “Oral lichen planus versus oral lichenoid eruption as a manifestation of contact allergy,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 333–334, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Bratel, M. Hakeberg, and M. Jontell, “Effect of replacement of dental amalgam on oral lichenoid reactions,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 41–45, 1996. View at Scopus
  38. M. D. Mignogna, L. Lo Muzio, L. Lo Russo, S. Fedele, E. Ruoppo, and E. Bucci, “Clinical guidelines in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in oral lichen planus: a 5-year experience,” Oral Oncology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 262–267, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. H. van der Meij, H. Mast, and I. van der Waal, “The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a prospective five-year follow-up study of 192 patients,” Oral Oncology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 742–748, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. J. Melrose, “Failure to diagnose pathology: an avoidable complication in oral and maxillofacial surgery,” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 465–473, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Warnakulasuriya, J. Reibel, J. Bouquot, and E. Dabelsteen, “Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems: predictive value, utility, weaknesses and scope for improvement,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 127–133, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Pinkus, “Lichenoid tissue reactions; a speculative review of the clinical spectrum of epidermal cell damage with special reference to erythema dyschromium pestans,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 107, pp. 840–843, 1973.
  43. M. Schiodt, “Oral discoid lupus erythematosus. III. A histopathologic study of sixty-six patients,” Oral Surgery Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 281–293, 1984. View at Scopus
  44. L. W. Solomom, T. N. Helm, C. Stevens, M. E. Neidas, and V. Kumar, “Clincal and immunopathiological findings in oral lichen planus pemphigoides,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology & Endodontics, vol. 103, pp. 808–813, 2007.
  45. S. Fregert, Manual of Contract Dermatitis, Copenhagen, Munksgaard, Danmark, 2nd edition, 1981.
  46. D. Ditrichova, S. Kapralova, and M. Tichy, “Oral lichenoid lesions and allergy to dental materials,” Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc Czechoslovakia, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 333–339, 2007.
  47. P. Koch and F. A. Bahmer, “Oral lesions and symptoms related to metals used in dental restorations: a clinical, allergological, and histologic study,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 422–430, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. Mobacken, K. Hersle, K. Sloberg, and H. Thilander, “Oral lichen planus: hypersensitivity to dental restoration material,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 1984. View at Scopus
  49. G. Lüders, “Exogen induzierte erkrarkungen der mundschleimhaut,” Zeitschrift für Hautkrankheiten, vol. 62, pp. 603–612, 1987.
  50. W. G. Shafer, M. K. Hine, and B. M. Levy, A Textbook of Oral Pathology, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 1983.
  51. A. Dunsche, I. Kastel, H. Tenheyden, I.N.G. Springer, E. Christopers, and J. Brash, “Oral lichenoid reactions associated with amalgam; improvement after amalgam removal,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 148, pp. 70–76, 2003.
  52. P. O. Ostman, G. Anneroth, and A. Skoglund, “Oral lichen planus lesions in contact with amalgam fillings: a clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical study,” Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 172–179, 1994. View at Scopus
  53. A. Skoglund, “Value of epicutaneous patch testing in patients with oral, mucosal lesions of lichenoid character,” Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 216–222, 1994. View at Scopus
  54. K. Kalimo, “Oral lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to mercury in amalgam fillings,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 69, 1996. View at Scopus
  55. E. R. Smart, R. I. Macleod, and C. M. Lawrence, “Resolution of lichen planus following removal of amalgam restorations in patients with proven allergy to mercury salts: a pilot study,” British Dental Journal, vol. 178, no. 3, pp. 108–112, 1995. View at Scopus
  56. S. H. Ibbotson, E. L. Speight, R. I. Macleod, E. R. Smart, and C. M. Lawrence, “The relevance and effect of amalgam replacement in subjects with oral lichenoid reactions,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 420–423, 1996. View at Scopus
  57. L. R. Eversole, “Allergic stomatitides,” Journal of Oral Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 93–102, 1979. View at Scopus
  58. W. A. Wiltshire, M. R. Ferreira, and A. J. Ligthelm, “Allergies to dental materials,” Quintessence International, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 513–520, 1996. View at Scopus
  59. J. Thomson and J. A. Russell, “Dermatitis due to mercury following amalgam dental restorations,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 292–297, 1970. View at Scopus
  60. F. A. Wright, “Allergic reaction to mercury after dental treatment,” New Zealand Dental Journal, vol. 67, no. 310, pp. 251–252, 1971. View at Scopus
  61. H. Nakayama, F. Niki, M. Shono, and S. Hada, “Mercury exanthem,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 411–417, 1983. View at Scopus
  62. A. J. Duxbury, R. D. Ead, S. McMurrough, and D. C. Watts, “Allergy to mercury in dental amalgam,” British Dental Journal, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 47–48, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. McGivern, M. Pemberton, E. D. Theaker, J. A. Buchanan, and M. H. Thornhill, “Delayed and immediate hypersensitivity reactions associated the use of amalgam,” British Dental Journal, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 73–76, 2000.
  64. R. R. White and R. L. Brandt, “Development of mercury hypersensitivity among dental students,” The Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1204–1207, 1976. View at Scopus
  65. J. Eyeson, I. House, Y. H. Yang, and K. A. A. S. Warnakulasuriya, “Relationship between mercury levels in blood and urine and complaints of chronic mercury toxicity from amalgam restorations,” British Dental Journal, vol. 208, no. 4, p. E7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. World Health Organization, “Future use of materials for dental restoration: report of the meeting convened at WHO HQ,” Geneva, Switzerland, prepared by Dr. Poul Erik Petersen, 2009.