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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 601549, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/601549
Review Article

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Craniofacial Surgery: Current Techniques, Clinical Experiences, and the Future of Personalized Stem Cell Therapy

1Laboratory of Craniofacial Biology and Development, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 3079, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
2Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 3079, Chicago, IL 60637, USA

Received 16 June 2012; Accepted 16 October 2012

Academic Editor: Ji Wu

Copyright © 2012 Kristofer E. Chenard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Critical-size osseous defects cannot heal without surgical intervention and can pose a significant challenge to craniofacial reconstruction. Autologous bone grafting is the gold standard for repair but is limited by a donor site morbidity and a potentially inadequate supply of autologous bone. Alternatives to autologous bone grafting include the use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, mesenchymal stem cells, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are essential mediators of bone formation involved in the regulation of differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Here we focus on the use of BMPs in experimental models of craniofacial surgery and clinical applications of BMPs in the reconstruction of the cranial vault, palate, and mandible and suggest a model for the use of BMPs in personalized stem cell therapies.