Table 2: Selected clinical studies using rhBMPs for human mandibular reconstruction.

AuthorsYearDescriptionMain findings

Moghadam et al. [26]2001Case report using poloxamer-based gel containing BMP partially purified from allogenic boneSuccessful clinical result; radiographic confirmation of bone formation at 3 and 9 months; biopsy for histological confirmation of bone formation at 9 months
Ferretti and Ripamonti [27]2002Randomized controlled trial using demineralized bone matrix reconstituted with BMP partially purified from allogenic bone ( )Biopsy at three months showed bone formation in two out of six patients treated with BMP and five out of seven treated with ABG
Warnke et al. [28]2006Case report of reconstruction with exogenously prepared titanium mesh graft filled with rhBMP-7-coated hydroxyapatite blocks Successful clinical functional result achieved following free flap transfer of the customized mandibular graft to the maxilla following 7-week incubation in the latissimus dorsi
Clokie and Sándor [4]2008Case series using rhBMP-7 reconstituted demineralized bone matrix in ten patientsSuccessful radiographic and functional restoration of mandibular continuity in all 10 patients
Carter et al. [29]2008Case series using rhBMP-2-soaked collagen sponges alone or in combination with bone marrow cells and allogenic cancellous bone chips; five patients, four with mandibular continuity defects and one with two large bone cavities in the mandible Restoration of mandibular defects in 3 out of 5 patients assessed clinically and by radiograph; two patients with failed reconstruction had mandibular continuity defects

ABG: autologous bone graft; CT: computed tomography; rhBMP: recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein.