Table 1: Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis.

Etiologic agent/pathologic conditionIARC classificationaCancer siteAssociated neoplasmDetection of DNA lesionsc [reference no.]

(I) Infection agent
Viruses
 HPVb
  High-risk types1Cervix and other siteCervical carcinoma IHC [38]
  Low-risk types2A
 HCV, HBVb1LiverHepatocellular carcinomaIHC [5659]
 EBVb1NasopharynxNasopharyngeal carcinomaIHC [38, 49, 50], ELISA [49]
Bacterium
Helicobacter pylori 1StomachGastric cancerIHC [36]
Parasites
Opisthorchis viverrini 1Intra- and extrahepatic bile ductCholangiocarcinomaIHC [17, 2226], HPLC-ECD [23, 27]
Schistosoma haematobium 1BladderBladder cancerIHC [60]

(II) Inflammatory disease
Asbestos fiber1LungMesothelioma, lung carcinomaIHC [61]
Reflux oesophagitis Barrett’s oesophagitisOesophagusOesophageal carcinomaIHC (In prep.)
Lichen planusOralOral squamous cell carcinomaIHC [62]
Inflammatory bowel diseaseColonColorectal carcinomaIHC [63]
 Crohn’s disease
 Chronic ulcerative colitisIHC (this paper)
UnknownSoft tissueMalignant fibrous histiocytomaIHC [64, 65]

This table was adapted and modified from the IARC [2] and Coussens and Werb [1].
IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer. aIARC classification: Group 1: carcinogenic to humans; Group 2A: probably carcinogenic to humans.
bHPV: human papilloma virus; HBV: hepatitis B virus; HCV: hepatitis C virus; EBV: Epstein-Barr virus.
cDNA lesions: IHC, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG detected by immunohistochemistry; HPLC-ECD: 8-oxodG detected by HPLC-ECD; ELISA: serum 8-oxodG detected by ELISA.