Table 3: Overview of PPARs endogenous and exogenous ligands according to [32].

endogenous ligandsexogenous ligand

PPAR Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, palmitoleic, linoleic, arachidonic acid)Hypolipidemic drugs (bezafibrate, clofibrate, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, nafenopin, WY-14643)
Saturated fatty acids (palmitoic and stearic acid)Phytanic acid
5, 6-, 8, 9-, 11, 12-, 14, 15-eetNsaids (indomethacin)
Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (hetes)Dehydroxyepiandrosterone (DHEA)
20, 14, 15-heetPhtalates
Prostaglandins (PGD2, PGD1)Anticonvulsants (valproic acid, phenobarbital)
Leucotriene B4 (LTB4)Telmisartan
VldlPhytol
Perfluorinated alkyl and sulfonyl acid comp. (pfoa, pfna, pfos)
Oxirane compounds
Etya
Epoxyisoprostane
Drf-2519
Bm 17.0744
Benz[a]anthracene
Di- and trichloroacetic acid
Mk-886*

PPAR Mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acidsTetradecylthioacetic acid
Saturated fatty acidsHypolipidemic drugs (WY-14643, bezafibrate)
Prostaglandins (PGA1, PGD1, PGD2)Valproic acid
13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-S-HODE)Benz[a]anthracene
4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE)Treprostinil sodium
VLDL, oxldlGw-501516
Sulindac sulfide*

PPAR Unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, eisosapentateonic acid)Thiazolidinediones (e.g., ciglitazone, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, troglitazone)
9-s-hode, 13-s-hode
15-s-hete, 5-s-hete, 12-s-hete
Nsaids (indomethacin, diclofenac, oxaprozin, zaltoprofen, ibuprofen, nimesulide, sulindac sulfide*)
Hypolipidemic drugs (bezafibrate, WY-14643, atorvastin)
Lysophosphatidic acidPhtalates (MEHD, DEPH)
HexadecylazelaicphosphatidylcholineBisphenol A diglicidyl ether
Prostaglandins (PGD1, PGD2, PGA1)Natural (plant) phenols (genistein, curcumin, resveratol)
Nitroalkane derivate of linoleic acidTelmisartan
OxldlJtp-426467
Pemoline
Phenylacetate
Dhea
LY171883
2-bromopalmitate
antidiabetic drugs (glimepiride, tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, gliclazide, glibenclamide, SR-202)
F-L-Leu
abietic acid
organotin compounds tributyl- and triphenyltin
perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA)
T0070907*
GW9662*

*Antagonist.