Table 1: Summary of the animal models commonly used for glaucoma research.

Glaucoma typeAnimalModel mode, mechanismReference

POAGMonkeySpontaneous inheritance[11]
Laser photocoagulation of entire TM, reduced outflow by PAS[1217]
Intracameral injection of latex microspheres, TM blockage[18]
Intracameral injection of autologous fixed red blood cells, TM blockage[19, 20]
DogSpontaneous inheritance[21, 22]
MouseTransgenic, Myoc mutation[23, 24]
Transgenic, alpha-1 subunit of collagen type I[25, 26]
RatTopical application of dexamethasone[27]
ZebrafishTransgenic, bug eye mutant[28, 29]
Transgenic, Irp2 mutation[30]
Transgenic, wdr36 mutation[31]
RabbitSubconjunctival injection of betamethasone[3234]
Posterior chamber injection of α-chymotrypsin, TM blockage[3537]
SheepTopical application of prednisolone[3840]
CowTopical application of prednisolone[41, 42]
BirdsLight-induced, reduced outflow facility[4345]

PACGDogSpontaneous inheritance[4653]
TurkeySpontaneous inheritance[54]
RatEpiscleral vein injection of saline, obstruction of outflow[55]
Injection of polystyrene microbeads or hyaluronic acid, TM blockage[56, 57]
Cauterization of episcleral veins, reduced outflow by PAS[58]
Ligation of episcleral veins, obstruction of outflow[59]
Laser photocoagulation of translimbal region, reduced outflow by PAS[60]
MouseTransgenic, Vav2/Vav3 knockout[61]
Laser photocoagulation of episcleral veins, reduced outflow by PAS[62, 63]
Cauterization of episcleral veins, reduced outflow by PAS[64]
RabbitWater loading, decreased outflow facility[65, 66]
Laser photocoagulation of TM, obstruction of outflow[6769]

PCGRabbitSpontaneous inheritance[7075]
RatSpontaneous inheritance, WAG strain[76, 77]
Spontaneous inheritance, RCS strain[78, 79]
CatSpontaneous inheritance[6, 21, 80, 81]
MouseTransgenic, Cyp1b1 mutation[8284]
Transgenic, Cyp1b1 and Tyr mutations[85]
QuailSpontaneous inheritance, al mutant[86, 87]

Normal tensionMouseTransgenic, Glast or Eaac1 mutation[88]
AutoimmuneRatImmunization against HSP27 and HSP60, RGC loss[89, 90]
PigmentaryMouseDBA/2J strain, Gpnmb, and Tyrp1 mutation[9193]

TM: trabecular meshwork; PAS: peripheral anterior synechiae; RGC: retinal ganglion cell.