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Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 693848, 11 pages
Research Article

Production of Chemoenzymatic Catalyzed Monoepoxide Biolubricant: Optimization and Physicochemical Characteristics

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Selangor, Malaysia

Received 26 July 2011; Revised 22 August 2011; Accepted 24 August 2011

Academic Editor: Rumiana Koynova

Copyright © 2012 Jumat Salimon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Linoleic acid (LA) is converted to per-carboxylic acid catalyzed by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). This per-carboxylic acid is only intermediate and epoxidized itself in good yields and almost without consecutive reactions. Monoepoxide linoleic acid 9(12)-10(13)-monoepoxy 12(9)-octadecanoic acid (MEOA) was optimized using D-optimal design. At optimum conditions, higher yield% (82.14) and medium oxirane oxygen content (OOC) (4.91%) of MEOA were predicted at 15 μL of H2O2, 120 mg of Novozym 435, and 7 h of reaction time. In order to develop better-quality biolubricants, pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), and oxidative stability (OT) were determined for LA and MEOA. The results showed that MEOA exhibited good low-temperature behavior with PP of 41C. FP of MEOA increased to 128C comparing with 115C of LA. In a similar fashion, VI for LA was 224 generally several hundred centistokes (cSt) more viscous than MEOA 130.8. The ability of a substance to resist oxidative degradation is another important property for biolubricants. Therefore, LA and MEOA were screened to measure their OT which was observed at 189 and 168C, respectively.