- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 697418, 3 pages
Plasma Cell Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis Does Not Predict West Nile Virus Infection
1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
2Department of Infectious Disease, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
3Sanford Research/USD, Sanford Health, Sioux Falls, SD 57104, USA
4Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford Health, Fargo, ND 58122, USA
Received 25 May 2011; Accepted 30 July 2011
Academic Editor: Stuart D. Blacksell
Copyright © 2012 Michael Jordan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. R. Petersen and E. B. Hayes, “Westward ho?—the spread of West Nile virus,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 22, pp. 2257–2259, 2004.
- N. P. Lindsey, J. E. Staples, J. A. Lehman, and M. Fischer, “Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease-United States, 1999–2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 1–17, 2010.
- S. L. Rossi, T. M. Ross, and J. D. Evans, “West Nile virus,” Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 47–65, 2010.
- P. J. Carson, T. Steidler, R. Patron, J. M. Tate, R. Tight, and R. A. Smego Jr., “Plasma cell pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with West Nile virus encephalitis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. e12–e15, 2003.
- K. M. Chan-Tack and G. Forrest, “A man with fever, headache, and confusion,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1834–1857, 2004.
- L. E. Davis, R. DeBiasi, D. E. Goade et al., “West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 286–300, 2006.
- B. K. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B. A. Marder, M. E. Levi et al., “Naturally acquired West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in transplant recipients: clinical, laboratory, diagnostic, and neuropathological features,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1210–1220, 2004.
- M. S. Diamond, B. Shrestha, E. Mehlhop, E. Sitati, and M. Engle, “Innate and adaptive immune responses determine protection against disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus,” Viral Immunology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 259–278, 2003.
- H. E. Prince, L. H. Tobler, M. Lapé-Nixon, G. A. Foster, S. L. Stramer, and M. P. Busch, “Development and persistence of West Nile Virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG in viremic blood donors,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 4316–4320, 2005.
- R. I. Handin, S. E. Lux, and T. P. Stossel, Blood: Principles and Practice of Hematology, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 2003.
- L. Hagberg, A. Forsman, G. Norkrans, E. Rybo, and L. Svennerholm, “Cytological and immunoglobulin findings in cerebrospinal fluid of symptomatic and asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients,” Infection, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 1988.
- Z. Tatomirović, R. Bokun, and Z. Trajković, “Cytologic characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with serous meningitis caused by enteroviruses, mumps virus or koch's bacillus,” Vojnosanitetski Pregled, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 349–354, 1995.
- E. Sindern and J. P. Malin, “Phenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid cells over the course of Lyme meningoradiculitis,” Acta Cytologica, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 73–75, 1995.
- G. P. Bravo, T. C. Vázquez, M. M. Polanco, R. G. Quezada, and B. E. Vidal, “Plasma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cerebral cysticercosis,” Revista de Investigacion Clinica, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 1990.
- O. J. Kolar and J. E. Burkhart, “Neurosyphilis,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 221–225, 1977.
- H. Shoji and D. Dommasch, “Zoster meningitis and radiculomeningitis after tick bite. Cytological findings in cerebrospinal fluid,” European Neurology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 149–156, 1979.
- V. W. Pentreath, P. J. Baugh, and D. R. Lavin, “Sleeping sickness and the central nervous system,” The Onderstepoort journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 369–377, 1994.