Table 4: Genetically engineered mouse models in the pathogenesis of DSS colitis.

GEM modelBackground (breeder)Age gender N MSMW of DSSDSS treatmentEndSRef

TLR2−/−
TLR4−/−
TLR2/4−/−C57BL/10ScSn–12nr40 kDa3.5% for 7 daysDay 8[53]

5–8 wks
TLR4−/−C57BL/6JMale, female2.5% for 5 daysDay 5
MyD88−/−(Jax)-6nr36–50 kDa 2.5% for 5/7 days Day 12/14[54]

TLR2−/−
TLR4−/−F2
MyD88−/−129/SvJ × C57BL/6SPF40 kDa2% for 7 daysDay 0–28[33]

8 wks
Male1.2% for 8 days
MyD88−/−nrSPF50 kDa2.5% for 8 daysDay 8[55]

10 wks
C57BL/6Male[56, 57]
IL-18Tg(nr)SPF50 kDa2% for 8 daysDay 12

3 cycles of
C57BL/67–9 wks2% for 5 days +Day 5
IL-15−/− (Taconic)nr36–50 kDa5 days of water Day 25[58]

C57BL/6JMale, female
TNF-α −/− (Shimizu, Japan)nr8 kDa4.5% for 7 daysDay 7[51]

8–10 wks
Male
MRP1−/−FVBSC40 kDa3% for 7daysDay 7[59]

C57BL/68-9 wksDay 4, 7
Mtgr1−/−(nr) Male, femalenr40–50 kDa3% for 4days Wk 6, 10[60]

7-8 wks
C57BL/6Male, female3% for 5 days
SOCS-1+/−(nr)SPF36–50 kDa(4% for 7 days)Day 14[61]

5 cycles of
C57BL/6J8–12 wk2% for 7 days +
IRF-1−/−(Jax)nr40 kDa7 days of waterWk 10[62]

8–10 wk
Female
PPARγ ΔIEpCnrnr35–40 kDa2.5% for 7 daysDay 7[63]

C57BL/6J
PPARγ ΔCD4+(nr)nr36–44 kDa2.5% for 7 daysDay 0,2,7[64]

C57BL/6
TPH1−/−(Taconic)nr40 kDa5% for 5 daysDay 5[65]

Bk2R−/−C57BL/68–12 wkns
C3−/−(Jax)nr36–40 kDa3% for 10 daysDay 10[45]

C57BL/6Male, female
iNOS−/−(Jax)nr40 kDa2.5% for 9 daysDay 3,9[49, 50]

eNOS−/−
nNOS−/−129/Sv × C57BL/6Male, female
e/nNOS−/−(Jax)nr40 kDa2.5% for 9 daysDay 3,9ns[49]

5–10 wks
C57BL/6Female
APN−/−(nr)–7nr40 kDa2% for 5 daysDay 5,10[66]

8–10 wks
C57BL/6JMale
APN−/−(Clea Japan)SPF36–50 kDa0.5% for 15 daysDay 15[67]

VhlΔF/FDay 5
Hif-1α ΔF/F6–8 wk2.5% or 5% for1 yearns
ArntΔF/Fnrnrnr35–40 kDa5 days ns[68]

GEM: genetically engineered mice, : number of mice pre group, MS: microbiological state, MW: molecular weight, S: susceptibility to DSS in comparison to wild-type mice (mice of the same strain without deletion), : significantly lower, SFP: specific pathogen-free conditions, SC: standard conditions, ns: nonsignificant, nr: not reported, ↑: significantly higher, wk: week, TLR: toll-like receptor, MyD88: myeloid differential protein, IL: interleukine, MRP: multi drug resistant protein, Mtgr: myeloid translocation gene related-1, SOCS: suppressor of cytokine signaling, IRF: Interferon regulatory factor, PPAR: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, TPH: tryptophan hydroxylase, Bk2R: bradykinin type 2 receptor, C3: complement, APN: adiponectine, Vhl: von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein, Hif: hypoxia-inducible factor, Arnt: aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator.