Table 2: Pathogenic arboviruses (viruses in bold are dealt with in greater detail later in the paper).

VirusClassification: family genusVectorAnimals affectedDisease (SFI1, HF2, E3)Endemic presenceOIE* listed

African horse sickness virusAsfarviridae
Asfivirus
Midge (Culicoides spp.)HorsesSFI/HFAfricaYes
African swine fever virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
Ticks (Argasid spp.)PigsHFAfrica Yes
Akabane virusBunyaviridae
Orthobunyavirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.) and midgesCattle, sheep, horse, Congenital abnormalitiesEast Asia, Turkey, South AfricaNo
Bluetongue virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
Midge (Culicoides spp.)Cattle, sheep, goatHFAmericas, Africa, AsiaYes
Bovine ephemeral fever virusRhabdoviridae
Ephemerovirus
Midge/mosquitoCattleSFI/respiratoryAfrica, Asia, AustraliaNo
California encephalitis virusBunyaviridae
Orthobunyavirus
MosquitoHumans, small mammalsEAmericasNo
Chikungunya virusTogaviridae
Alphavirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)HumansSFIAfrica, Asia, EuropeNo
Colorado tick fever virusReoviridae
Coltivirus
Tick (Dermocentor andersonii)Humans, small mammalsSFINorth AmericaNo
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virusBunyaviridae
Nairovirus
Ticks (Hyalomma spp.)HumansSFI/HFAfrica, Asia, EuropeNo
Dengue virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquitoes (Aedes spp.)HumansSFI/HFAfrica, Asia, Americas, EuropeNo
Dugbe virusBunyaviridae
Nairovirus
TicksHumans, cattleSFIAfricaNo
Eastern equine encephalitis virusTogaviridae
Alphavirus
Mosquitoes (Culex spp.)Humans, equineEAmericasYes
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
Midge (Culicoides spp.)Cattle, deerHFAmericas, Africa, AsiaYes
Equine encephalosis virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
Midge (Culicoides spp.)EquineESouthern Africa, IsraelNo
Getah virusTogaviridae,
Alphavirus
Mosquito (Culex spp.)EquineSFI/EAsiaNo
Inkoo virusBunyaviridae
Orthobunyavirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)CattleSFIFinlandNo
Japanese encephalitis virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Culex spp.)Humans, pigs, horsesE/abortionAsiaYes
Kemerovo virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
Tick (Ixodes spp.)Humans, rodents, birdsSFIAsiaNo
Kyasanur Forest virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Ticks (Haemaphysalis spp.)Humans, small mammalsEIndiaNo
La Crosse virusBunyaviridae
Orthobunyavirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)Humans, Small mammalsENorth AmericaNo
Louping ill virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Ticks (Ixodes ricinus)Sheep, cattleEBritish IslesNo
Murray Valley encephalitis virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Culex annulirostris)Humans, horse, cattleEAustralia, IndonesiaNo
Nairobi sheep disease virusBunyaviridae
Nairovirus
Tick (Ripicephalus appendiculatus)Sheep, goatsHF/gastroenteritisEast AfricaYes
Omsk Haemorrhagic fever virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Tick (Dermacentor reticulatus)HumansHFAsiaNo
Palyam virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
Mosquitoes, midgesCattleAbortionAfrica, Asia and AustraliaNo
Peruvian horse sickness virusReoviridae
Orbivirus
MosquitoesHorsesESouth AmericaNo
Powassan virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Aedes/Anopheles spp.)Small/medium sized mammalsNorth America, RussiaNo
Rift Valley fever virusBunyaviridae
Phlebovirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)Humans, sheep, goats, camelsSFI/HF/abortionAfricaYes
Russian spring-summer encephalitis virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Tick (Ixodes persulcatus)Humans, cattle, goatsEEurasiaNo
Sandfly fever virusBunyaviridae
Phlebovirus
Sandfly (Phlebotomus perniciosus)HumansSFIEuropeNo
Sindbis virusTogaviridae,
Alphavirus
MosquitoWildlife, avianSFIAfrica, Europe, AsiaNo
St. Louis encephalitis virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Culex spp.)Humans, avianEAmericasNo
Semliki Forest virusTogaviridae
Alphavirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)EquineEAfricaNo
Tahyna virusBunyaviridea
Orthobunyavirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)Humans, pigsSFIAfrica, EuropeNo
Tick-borne encephalitis virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Tick (Ixodes spp.)Humans, wildlifeEEurope, AsiaNo
Thogoto virusOrthomyxoviridae
Thogotovirus
Tick (various spp.)sheepAbortionAfricaNo
Usutu virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
MosquitoAvian, humansEAfrica, EuropeNo
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virusTogaviridae
Alphavirus
MosquitoHumans, horseEAmericasYes
Vesicular stomatitis virusRhabdoviridae
Vesiculovirus
Mosquito/sandfly/midges/blackflyHumans, cattle, horse, pigsMucosal vesiclesAmericasYes
Wesselsbron virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Aedes spp.)Humans, sheep, cattleHFAfrica, AsiaNo
West Nile virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Culex spp.)humans, cattle, horse, avianEAfrica, Eurasia, AmericasYes
Western equine encephalitis virusTogaviridae
Alphavirus
MosquitoHumans, cattle, horseEAmericasYes
Yellow fever virusFlaviviridae
Flavivirus
Mosquito (Aedes and Haemagogus spp.)Humans, primatesHFAfrica, South America, CaribbeanNo

1SFI: systemic Febrile Illness; 2HF: haemorrhagic fever; 3E: encephalitis.
*Office International des Epizooties (World Organisation for Animal Health).