About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 818607, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/818607
Research Article

A New Method of Diagnosing Constitutional Types Based on Vocal and Facial Features for Personalized Medicine

Division of Constitutional Medicine Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseongdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Deajeon 305-811, Republic of Korea

Received 21 May 2012; Accepted 30 May 2012

Academic Editor: Sabah Mohammed

Copyright © 2012 Bum Ju Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. P. Ebstein, J. Benjamin, and R. H. Belmaker, “Personality and polymorphisms of genes involved in aminergic neurotransmission,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 410, no. 2-3, pp. 205–214, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Chae, I. K. Lyoo, S. J. Lee et al., “An alternative way to individualized medicine: psychological and physical traits of Sasang typology,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 519–528, 2003. View at Scopus
  3. V. Kaasinen, E. Nurmi, J. Bergman et al., “Personality traits and brain dopaminergic function in Parkinson's disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 23, pp. 13272–13277, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Y. Kim, S. Cha, H. J. Jin, and S. Jeong, “Genetic approach to elucidation of Sasang constitutional medicine,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. C. Loehlin, Genes and Environment in Personality Development, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1992.
  6. P. Nowotny, J. M. Kwon, and A. M. Goate, “SNP analysis to dissect human traits,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 637–641, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Paris, “Predispositions, personality traits, and posttraumatic stress disorder,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 175–183, 2000. View at Scopus
  8. C. S. Yin, H. J. Park, J. H. Chung, H. J. Lee, and B. C. Lee, “Genome-wide association study of the four-constitution medicine,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1327–1333, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. J. Jeong, S. H. Hong, H. J. Park et al., “Yangkyuk-Sanhwa-Tang induces changes in serum cytokines and improves outcome in focal stroke patients,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 63–68, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. J. Jeong, H. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. M. Kim, and J. Y. Um, “Inhibitory effect of Yangkyuk-Sanhwa-Tang on inflammatory cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cerebral infarction patients,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 525–537, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. J. Kim, S. Y. Hwang, J. H. Kim et al., “Association between genetic polymorphism of multidrug resistance 1 gene and sasang constitutions,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Lee, Y. Jung, J. Yoo, E. Lee, and B. Koh, “Perspective of the human body in sasang constitutional medicine,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 31–41, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. B. Shim, S. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and Y. E. Earm, “Physiome and sasang constitutional medicine,” Journal of Physiological Sciences, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 433–440, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Y. Shin, H. J. Jeong, J. H. Lee et al., “Regulatory effect of cytokine production in patients with cerebral infarction by Yulda-Hanso-Tang,” Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–193, 2000. View at Scopus
  15. J. Y. Um, J. C. Joo, K. Y. Kim, K. M. Lee, and H. M. Kim, “Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and traditional Sasang classification in Koreans with cerebral infarction,” Hereditas, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 166–171, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. H. Yoo, E. J. Lee, C. K. Kwak et al., “Clinical trial of herbal formula on weight loss in obese Korean children,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 713–722, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Q. Wang, Theories of Physical Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Medical Science and Technology Publishing Company, Beijing, China, 1995.
  18. K. Choi, J. Lee, J. Yoo, E. Lee, B. Koh, and J. Lee, “Sasang constitutional types can act as a risk factor for insulin resistance,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. e57–e60, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. S. Jang, M. Y. Im, B. C. Shin, and M. S. Lee, “Menstrual cycle and Yin-Yang in healthy nursing college students,” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 266–269, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. Koo, J. Y. Kim, M. G. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Feature selection from a facial image for distinction of sasang constitution,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. D. Pham, J. H. Do, B. Ku, H. J. Lee, H. Kim, and J. Y. Kim, “Body mass index and facial cues in Sasang typology for young and elderly persons,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 749209, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. W. Song, S. Lee, Y. K. Park, and S. Y. Woo, “Quantitative sasang constitution diagnosis method for distinguishing between tae-eumin and soeumin types based on elasticity measurements of the skin of the human hand,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. H. Won, S. Lee, E. Jang et al., “A genome-wide scan for the sasang constitution in a korean family suggests significant linkage at chromosomes 8q11.22–23 and 11q22.1–3,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 765–769, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Soltane, N. Doghmane, and N. Guersi, “Face and speech based multi-modal biometric authentication,” International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, vol. 21, pp. 41–56, 2010.
  25. G. A. Atkinson and M. L. Smith, “Using photometric stereo for face recognition,” International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, vol. 3, pp. 35–44, 2011.
  26. A. M. Lech and R. Johnston, “The relative utility of verbal descriptions and facial composites in facial identifications,” International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, vol. 3, pp. 1–16, 2011.
  27. Y. Fayçal, Y. Farid, B. Mesaoud, and G. Mhania, “Pitch shifting of arabic speech signal by source filter modelling for prosodic transformations,” International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, vol. 2, pp. 59–70, 2008.
  28. R. Ebrahimpour, M. Nazari, M. Azizi, and A. Amiri, “Single training sample face recognition using fusion of classifiers,” International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, vol. 4, pp. 25–32, 2011.
  29. A. Gelzinis, A. Verikas, and M. Bacauskiene, “Automated speech analysis applied to laryngeal disease categorization,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 36–47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Kang and H. Lee, “Automatic voice classification system based on traditional Korean medicine,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 56, pp. 35–38, 2009. View at Scopus
  31. J. González, “Formant frequencies and body size of speaker: a weak relationship in adult humans,” Journal of Phonetics, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 277–287, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. E. Fan, K. W. Chang, C. J. Hsieh, X. R. Wang, and C. J. Lin, “LIBLINEAR: a library for large linear classification,” Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 9, pp. 1871–1874, 2008. View at Scopus
  33. H. Ian, Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2005.
  34. E. Çomak, K. Polat, S. Güneş, and A. Arslan, “A new medical decision making system: least square support vector machine (LSSVM) with Fuzzy Weighting Pre-processing,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 409–414, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Huang and C. X. Ling, “Using AUC and accuracy in evaluating learning algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 299–310, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. J. Lee, M. S. Shin, Y. J. Oh, H. S. Oh, and K. H. Ryu, “Identification of protein functions using a machine-learning approach based on sequence-derived properties,” Proteome Science, vol. 7, article 27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Guyon and A. Elisseeff, “An introduction to variable and feature selection,” Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 3, pp. 1157–1182, 2003.
  38. J. Han and M. Kamber, Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 2006.