About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 845618, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/845618
Review Article

Classic and New Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
2Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
3Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA

Received 9 January 2012; Accepted 23 January 2012

Academic Editor: Monica Fedele

Copyright © 2012 Javier Blesa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [70 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Kurt A. Jellinger, “Potential role of α-synuclein in neurodegeneration: studies in a rat animal model,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 659–660, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Quinton R.D. Jones, Jordan Warford, H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe, and George S. Robertson, “Target-based selection of flavonoids for neurodegenerative disorders,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 602–610, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. Rojas, E. Ruiz-Sánchez, C. Rojas, and S.O. Ögren, “Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) modulates the expression of dopamine-related genes in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonism in mice,” Neuroscience, vol. 223, pp. 246–257, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea L. Nuckolls, Cole Worley, Christopher Leto, Hongyu Zhang, Jill K. Morris, and John A. Stanford, “Tongue force and tongue motility are differently affected by unilateral vs bilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion in rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 234, no. 2, pp. 343–348, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Isabelle St-Amour, Melanie Bousquet, Isabelle Pare, Janelle Drouin-Ouellet, Francesca Cicchetti, Renee Bazin, and Frederic Calon, “Impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on the dopaminergic system and immune response in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease,” Journal Of Neuroinflammation, vol. 9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Puneet Bagga, Anup N. Chugani, Komanduri S. Varadarajan, and Anant B. Patel, “ In vivo NMR studies of regional cerebral energetics in MPTP model of Parkinson's disease: recovery of cerebral metabolism with acute levodopa treatment ,” Journal of Neurochemistry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Galuppo, Renato Iori, Gina Rosalinda De Nicola, Placido Bramanti, and Emanuela Mazzon, “Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of (R-s)-glucoraphanin bioactivated with myrosinase in murine sub-acute and acute MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 5532–5547, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Md Shahaduzzaman, Sandra Acosta, Paula C. Bickford, and Cesar V. Borlongan, “α-Synuclein is a pathological link and therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease and traumatic brain injury,” Medical Hypotheses, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ana Clara Cristóvão, Joana Barata, Goun Je, and Yoon-Seong Kim, “PKCδ mediates paraquat-induced Nox1 expression in dopaminergic neurons,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paul McGonigle, “Animal Models of CNS Disorders,” Biochemical Pharmacology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kai-Li Ma, Jia-Hong Gao, Zhang-Qiong Huang, Ying Zhang, De-Xuan Kuang, Qin-Fang Jiang, Yuan-Yuan Han, Cong Li, Wen-Guang Wang, Xiao-Yan Huang, Juan Xu, Pin-Fen Tong, Xing-Xiao Yin, and Jie-Jie Dai, “Motor Function in MPTP-Treated Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis),” Neurochemical Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Adrianna Z. Herskovits, and Leonard Guarente, “Sirtuin deacetylases in neurodegenerative diseases of aging,” Cell Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 746–758, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marina Spanos, Julie Gras-Najjar, Jeremy M. Letchworth, Audrey L. Sanford, J. Vincent Toups, and Leslie A. Sombers, “Quantitation of Hydrogen Peroxide Fluctuations and Their Modulation of Dopamine Dynamics in the Rat Dorsal Striatum Using Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry,” ACS Chemical Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 782–789, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hugo Gonzalez, Francisco Contreras, Carolina Prado, Daniela Elgueta, Dafne Franz, Sebastian Bernales, and Rodrigo Pacheco, “Dopamine Receptor D3 Expressed on CD4(+) T Cells Favors Neurodegeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons during Parkinson's Disease,” Journal Of Immunology, vol. 190, no. 10, pp. 5048–5056, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cheong-Meng Chong, Zhong-Yan Zhou, Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski, Guo-Zhen Cui, Lun-Qing Zhang, Fei Sa, Pui-Man Hoi, Kelvin Chan, and Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, “Danshensu protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage of PC12 cells in vitro and dopaminergic neurons in zebrafish,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 543, pp. 121–125, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marcio Lazzarini, Sabine Martin, Mišo Mitkovski, Rita Raisman Vozari, Walter Stühmer, and Elaine Del Bel, “Doxycycline restrains glia and confers neuroprotection in a 6-OHDA Parkinson model,” Glia, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pádraig Mulcahy, Aideen O’Doherty, Alexia Paucard, Timothy O’Brien, Deniz Kirik, and Eilís Dowd, “The behavioural and neuropathological impact of intranigral AAV-α-synuclein is exacerbated by systemic infusion of the Parkinson's disease-associated pesticide, rotenone, in rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 243, pp. 6–15, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Massimo S. Fiandaca, and Howard J. Federoff, “Using viral-mediated gene delivery to model Parkinson's disease: Do nonhuman primate investigations expand our understanding?,” Experimental Neurology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • David T. Dexter, and Peter Jenner, “Parkinson disease: from pathology to molecular disease mechanisms,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Joana Guimaraes, Eduardo Moura, Elisabete Silva, Paulo Aguiar, Carolina Garrett, and Maria Augusta Vieira-Coelho, “Locus Coeruleus Is Involved in Weight Loss in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease: An Effect Reversed by Deep Brain Stimulation,” Brain Stimulation, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 845–855, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Neeta D. Grover, Ramachandra P. Limaye, Dilip V. Gokhale, and Tatyasaheb R. Patil, “Zonisamide: A review of the clinical and experimental evidence for its use in Parkinson's disease,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 547–555, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sudipta Chakraborty, Julia Bornhorst, Thuy T. Nguyen, and Michael Aschner, “Oxidative Stress Mechanisms Underlying Parkinson's Disease-Associated Neurodegeneration in C. elegans,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 23103–23128, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kaitlin F. Farrell, Sesha Krishnamachari, Ernesto Villanueva, Haiyan Lou, Tshianda N. M. Alerte, Eloise Peet, Robert E. Drolet, and Ruth G. Perez, “Non-motor parkinsonian pathology in aging A53T α-Synuclein mice is associated with progressive synucleinopathy and altered enzymatic function,” Journal of Neurochemistry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Honglei Chen, Edward A. Burton, G. Webster Ross, Xuemei Huang, Rodolfo Savica, Robert D. Abbott, Alberto Ascherio, John N. Caviness, Xiang Gao, Kimberly A. Gray, Jau-Shyong Hong, Freya Kamel, Danna Jennings, Annette Kirshner, Cindy Lawler, Rui Liu, Gary W. Miller, Robert Nussbaum, Shyamal D. Peddada, Amy Comstock Rick, Beate Ritz, Andrew D. Siderowf, Caroline M. Tanner, Alexander I. Troester, and Jing Zhang, “Research on the Premotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: Clinical and Etiological Implications,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 121, no. 11-12, pp. 1245–1252, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gabriela P. Chaves-Kirsten, Caio H. Y. Mazucanti, Caroline C. Real, Bruna M. Souza, Luiz R. G. Britto, and Andrea S. Torrao, “Temporal Changes of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor in the Basal Ganglia as a Possible Structure-Specific Plasticity Process in 6-OHDA Lesioned Rats,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xin Zhao, Shenyu Zhai, Ming-Sheng An, Yue-Hua Wang, Ying-Fan Yang, Hui-Qi Ge, Jin-Hao Liu, and Xiao-Ping Pu, “Neuroprotective Effects of Protocatechuic Aldehyde against Neurotoxin-Induced Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sachi Tanaka, Maki Nishimura, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, and Yutaka Suzuki, “Transcriptome Analysis of Mouse Brain Infected with Toxoplasma gondii,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 3609–3619, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Huaxin Sheng, Raphael E. Chaparro, Toshihiro Sasaki, Miwa Izutsu, Robert D. Pearlstein, Artak Tovmasyan, and David S. Warner, “Metalloporphyrins as Therapeutic Catalytic Oxidoreductants in Central Nervous System Disorders,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, pp. 131001093903006, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Salvatore Condello, Monica Currò, Nadia Ferlazzo, Gregorio Costa, Giuseppa Visalli, Daniela Caccamo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Cinzia Costa, Paolo Calabresi, Riccardo Ientile, and Francesco Pisani, “Protective Effects of Zonisamide Against Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity,” Neurochemical Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohammed Gebriel, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Kai-Erik Uleberg, Eivind Larssen, Dominik Piston, Anne Hjelle Bjørnstad, and Simon Geir Møller, “Zebrafish brain proteomics reveals central proteins involved in neurodegeneration,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Thomas Taetzsch, and Michelle L. Block, “Pesticides, Microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's Disease,” Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sandeep Vasant More, Hemant Kumar, In-Su Kim, Sushruta Koppulla, Byung-Wook Kim, and Dong-Kug Choi, “Strategic selection of neuroinflammatory models in parkinson's disease:Evidence from experimental studies,” CNS and Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 680–697, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Magdalena Kauczynska Karlsson, Praveen Sharma, Jan Aasly, Mathias Toft, Orjan Skogar, Solve Saebo, and Anders Lonneborg, “Found in transcription: Accurate Parkinson's disease classification in peripheral blood,” Journal of Parkinsons Disease, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19–29, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maja Puchades, Carl Johan Sogn, Jan Maehlen, Linda H. Bergersen, and Vidar Gundersen, “Unaltered lactate and glucose transporter levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Parkinsons Disease, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 371–385, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xian-Ming Luo, Hai Lin, Wei Wang, Marilyn S. Geaney, Lee Law, Shaun Wynyard, Shamim B. Shaikh, Henry Waldvogel, Richard L. M. Faull, Robert B. Elliott, Stephen J. M. Skinner, Jacqueline E. Lee, and Paul L. -J. Tan, “Recovery of Neurological Functions in Non-Human Primate Model of Parkinson's Disease by Transplantation of Encapsulated Neonatal Porcine Choroid Plexus Cells,” Journal of Parkinsons Disease, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 275–291, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yong Sung Kim, “Accumulation of Alpha-synuclein Causes Colonic Dysmotility Independently of Enteric Nervous Damage in the Early Stage of Parkinson's Disease (Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012;24:e425-e436),” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 264, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alazne Domínguez, Antonia Álvarez, Enrique Hilario, Blanca Suarez-Merino, and Felipe Goñi-de-Cerio, “Central nervous system diseases and the role of the blood-brain barrier in their treatment,” Neuroscience Discovery, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rosa Canet-Aviles, Geoffrey P. Lomax, Ellen G. Feigal, and Catherine Priest, “Proceedings: Cell Therapies for Parkinson's Disease From Discovery to Clinic,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 979–991, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hyung-Mun Yun, Dong Young Choi, Ki Wan Oh, and Jin Tae Hong, “PRDX6 Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease,” Molecular Neurobiology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Taku Amo, Shinji Saiki, Tadashi Sawayama, Shigeto Sato, and Nobutaka Hattori, “Detailed analysis of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects caused by loss of PINK1,” Neuroscience Letters, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sergey V Anisimov, and Gesine Paul, “Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells: a future therapy for Parkinson’s disease?,” Future Neurology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 475–486, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Werner J Geldenhuys, Samir M Abdelmagid, Patrick J Gallegos, and Fayez F Safadi, “Parkinson’s disease biomarker: a patent evaluation of WO2013153386,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, pp. 1–5, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raffaella Adami, Giuseppe Scesa, and Daniele Bottai, “Stem cell transplantation in neurological diseases: improving effectiveness in animal models,” Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 2, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sandra Amor, Laura A. N. Peferoen, Daphne Y. S. Vogel, Marjolein Breur, Paul van der Valk, David Baker, and Johannes M. van Noort, “Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases - an update,” Immunology, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 151–166, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tiago Zaminelli, Raísa Wendhausen Gradowski, Taysa Bervian Bassani, Janaína Kohl Barbiero, Ronise M. Santiago, Daniele Maria-Ferreira, Cristiane Hatsuko Baggio, and Maria A. B. F. Vital, “Antidepressant and Antioxidative Effect of Ibuprofen in the Rotenone Model of Parkinson’s Disease,” Neurotoxicity Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dwayne Brown, Andrea Tamas, Dora Reglodi, and Yousef Tizabi, “PACAP Protects Against Inflammatory-Mediated Toxicity in Dopaminergic SH-SY5Y Cells: Implication for Parkinson’s Disease,” Neurotoxicity Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dasa Dolezalova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Carsten R. Bjarkam, Jens Christian H. Sørensen, Miles Cunningham, David Weingarten, Joseph D. Ciacci, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Jan Motlik, Michael P. Hefferan, Tom Hazel, Karl Johe, Cassiano Carromeu, Alysson Muotri, Jack Bui, Jan Strnadel, and Martin Marsala, “Pig models of neurodegenerative disorders: Utilization in cell replacement-based preclinical safety and efficacy studies,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Thomas Langer, “Dynamic survey of mitochondria by ubiquitin,” Embo Reports, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 231–243, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elena A. Kozina, Gulnara R. Khakimova, Vitaly G. Khaindrava, Valeriayn G. Kucheryanu, Nadezhda E. Vorobyeva, Alexey N. Krasnov, Sophia G. Georgieva, Lidiya Kerkerian-Le Goff, and Michael V. Ugrumov, “Tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of Mptp-treated mice at the presymptomatic and symptomatic stages of parkinsonism,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dahmane Ouazia, Louis-Charles Levros, Éric Rassart, and Richard R. Desrosiers, “Dopamine down-regulation of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is dependent on reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells,” Neuroscience, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Un Ju Jung, Min-Tae Jeon, Myung-Sook Choi, and Sang Ryong Kim, “ Silibinin Attenuates MPP + -Induced Neurotoxicity in the Substantia Nigra In Vivo ,” Journal of Medicinal Food, pp. 140324090959009, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Glenda E. Gillies, Ilse S. Pienaar, Shiv Vohra, and Zahi Qamhawi, “Sex Differences in Parkinson’s Disease,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fengju Jia, Ning Song, Chenyang Zhao, Junxia Xie, and Hong Jiang, “Unexpected Improvements of Spatial Learning and Memory Abilities in Chronic Rotenone Intoxicated Mice,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Josiane W. Bortolotto, Giana P. Cognato, Raissa R. Christoff, Laura N. Roesler, Carlos E. Leite, Luiza W. Kist, Mauricio R. Bogo, Monica R. Vianna, and Carla D. Bonan, “ Long-Term Exposure to Paraquat Alters Behavioral Parameters and Dopamine Levels in Adult Zebrafish ( Danio Rerio ) ,” Zebrafish, pp. 140225122422005, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria Teresa Baltazar, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, José Alberto Duarte, and Félix Carvalho, “Pesticides exposure as etiological factors of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases—A mechanistic approach,” Toxicology Letters, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Leonard Guarente, “SIRT1 in Neurodevelopment and Brain Senescence,” Neuron, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 471–483, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Melissa Barker-Haliski, Daniel Friedman, H. Steve White, and Jacqueline A. French, “How Clinical Development Can, and Should, Inform Translational Science,” Neuron, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 582–593, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jennifer N. Cremer, Katrin Amunts, Jochen Graw, Markus Piel, Frank Rösch, and Karl Zilles, “Neurotransmitter receptor density changes in Pitx3ak mice – a model relevant to Parkinson’s disease,” Neuroscience, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrew L. Eagle, Oluyemi O. Olumolade, and Hajime Otani, “Partial dopaminergic denervation-induced impairment in stimulus discrimination acquisition in parkinsonian rats: A model for early Parkinson's disease,” Neuroscience Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Florian Reinhart, Nabil El Massri, Fannie Darlot, Napoleon Torres, Daniel M Johnstone, Claude Chabrol, Thomas Costecalde, Jonathan Stone, John Mitrofanis, Alim-Louis Benabid, and Cécile Moro, “810nm near-infrared light offers neuroprotection and improves locomotor activity in MPTP-treated mice,” Neuroscience Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ulrika Nordström, Geneviève Beauvais, Anamitra Ghosh, Baby Chakrapani Pulikkaparambil Sasidharan, Martin Lundblad, Julia Fuchs, Rajiv L. Joshi, Jack W. Lipton, Andrew Roholt, Satish Medicetty, Timothy N. Feinstein, Jennifer A. Steiner, Martha L. Escobar Galvis, Alain Prochiantz, and Patrik Brundin, “Progressive nigrostriatal terminal dysfunction and degeneration in the engrailed1 heterozygous mouse model of Parkinson's disease,” Neurobiology of Disease, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Oytun Erbaş, Bilge Piri Çınar, Volkan Solmaz, Türker Çavuşoğlu, and Utku Ateş, “The neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin on experimental Parkinson model in rats,” Neuropeptides, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jenny Sandstroem von Tobela, Debora Zoiab, Jorane Althaus, Paola Antinori, Julien Mermoud, Hui Song Pak, Alexander Scherla, and Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, “Immediate and delayed effects of subchronic Paraquat exposure during an early differentiation stage in 3D-rat brain cell cultures,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 188–197, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrzej Dekundy, Flora Mela, Martine Hofmann, and Wojciech Danysz, “Effects of dopamine uptake inhibitor MRZ-9547 in animal models of Parkinson’s disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alvaro Martin, Cosmin A. Tegla, Cornelia D. Cudrici, Adam M. Kruszewski, Philippe Azimzadeh, Dallas Boodhoo, Armugam P. Mekala, Violeta Rus, and Horea Rus, “Role of SIRT1 in autoimmune demyelination and neurodegeneration,” Immunologic Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • T. R. Petrosyan, O. V. Gevorkyan, and A. S. Hovsepyan, “Effects of Bacterial Melanin on Movement, Posture, and Skilled Balancing Deficits After Unilateral Destruction of Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta in Rats,” Journal of Motor Behavior, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alazne Dominguez, Blanca Suarez-Merino, and Felipe Goni-de-Cerio, “Nanoparticles and Blood-Brain Barrier: The Key to Central Nervous System Diseases,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 766–779, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pasan Fernando, Xuxu Yan, Julia Lockwood, Yin Duan, Lihui Wei, R. Glenn Wells, Corinne Bensimon, Wayne M. Mullett, and Terrence Ruddy, “Toxicological Evaluation of a Rotenone Derivative in Rodents for Clinical Myocardial Perfusion Imaging,” Cardiovascular Toxicology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ramin Ansari, Ali Mahta, Eric Mallack, and Jin Jun Luo, “Hyperhomocysteinemia and Neurologic Disorders: a Review,” Journal of Clinical Neurology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 281, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Slawomir Wojcik, Jan Henryk Spodnik, Edyta Spodnik, Jerzy Dziewiatkowski, and Janusz Morys, “Nigrostriatal pathway degeneration in rats after intraperitoneal administration of proteasome inhibitor MG-132,” Folia Neuropathologica, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 41–55, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar