Figure 4: Effect of GSC extract on the levels of TNF-α and iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the DSS-treated colon tissue. ((a), (b)) Levels of TNF-α and iNOS mRNA in the colon tissue were determined by quantitative ΔΔCT Real-Time-PCR, using GAPDH mRNA as the internal control. The graph shown is representative of three independent experiments (, versus control; , versus DSS). (c) Immunostaining of iNOS in the colon using anti-iNOS polyclonal antibody (200x; scale bar = 100 μm) (A) control mice administered with drinking tap water ( per group), (B) DSS-induced mice administered with DSS in drinking tap water, and (C) co-administered with DSS drinking water and GSC extract oral injection (500 mg/kg/day). Open arrows indicate iNOS protein(s).