Table 1: Molecular alterations in BPH and PCa.

FactorsNormal prostateBPHPCa

Prostate-specific factors
 5 α reductaseNormalUpregulatedUpregulated
 Androgen receptor (AR)NormalUpregulatedUpregulated
 AR coactivatorNormalUpregulatedUpregulated
 Androgen corepressorNormalUpregulatedUpregulated
 PSA level in serum(0–4 ng/mL) (2–8 ng/mL) (4–10 ng/mL)

Growth factorsFGF-2,7,9
IGF 1,2
IGFBP-2
FGF 1,2,9
IGF-2 high
IGFBP-3
FGF-1,2,6,8
IGF-1 high
IGFBP-2 high
IGFBP-3 high

NE cells NormalNumber decreaseNumber increase

Luminal cell factorsVimentin Vimentin increaseVimentin over exp
Intracellular space normalIntracellular space increaseIntracellular space decrease
PMSA normalPMSA decreasePMSA increase

Basal cellsPresentPresentAbsent

Stromal cell factor Fibroblast content normalFibroblast content increaseFibroblast content increase
NMMHCNMMHC increaseNMMHC
ElastinElastin decreaseElastin increase
SMMHCSMMHC decreaseSMMHC decrease

Stem cell markersCD44, P63, Sca-1, CD133, CD117, Trop2, CD49f, p27Kip1, CK5(+), 8(−), PSCA CD44, p63, Sca-1, CD133, p27Kip1,
CD117, Trop2, CD49f, AR, CK5(+), 8(−), PSCA high
CD44, Sca-1, CD133,
CD117, Trop2, CD49f, CK5(−), PSCA high, AR