Table 1: Demographics of the study population.

Mean ± SD (range)

Age (years) (23 to 33)
Gender (% female)54.5%

Spherical equivalent refraction

Manifest (D) (−3.25 to 0.75)
Noncycloplegia (D)* (−3.75 to 0.50)
Cycloplegia (D)* (−3.75 to 0.50)

Cylindrical refraction

Manifest (D) (−0.25 to 0.00)
Noncycloplegia (D)* (−0.25 to 0.00)
Cycloplegia (D)* (−0.25 to 0.00)
Ocular HOAs (μm, for a 4-mm pupil) (0.04 to 0.17)

D: diopter, SD: standard deviation, HOAs: higher-order aberrations, *Measured using an autorefractor.