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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 134914, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/134914
Review Article

The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

1Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Lushan South Road 932, Changsha, Hunan 410083, China
2National Engineering Research Centre for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083, China
3Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China

Received 20 September 2013; Accepted 19 October 2013

Academic Editor: Qaisar Mahmood

Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Ali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica), sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans), and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d) in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination.