Table 2: Results from (a) MANCOVA and (b) ANCOVA models analyzing Principal Component scores (7 components with eigenvalues >1; 80.81% of total variance explained). -ratios were approximated using Wilk’s λ. Partial variance was estimated using Wilk’s partial eta². Interaction terms were excluded from the final models if not significant. Significant effects are in bold typeface.
(a)

Wilk's λ df (error df) Partial eta²

Population0.701.0128 (271.83)0.450.086
SL0.724.147 (75)0.0010.28
Population × SL0.561.7028 (271.83)0.0180.14

(b)

Mean square df Partial eta²

Principal component 1
Population6.31211.32040.00010.348
SL0.0300.05410.8160.001
Error0.5685

Principal component 2
Population14.74340.46540.00010.656
SL1.2373.39610.0690.038
Error0.3685

Principal component 3
Population13.71433.36340.00010.611
SL0.0130.03210.8580.000
Error0.4185

Principal component 4
Population2.1512.44440.0530.103
SL0.1420.16210.6880.002
Error0.8885

Principal component 5
Population1.8932.78840.0320.121
SL3.8025.60010.0200.065
Population × SL2.1423.15540.0180.135
Error0.7081

Principal component 6
Population1.5101.63540.1730.071
SL0.7250.78510.3780.009
Error0.9285

Principal component 7
Population3.8694.55140.0020.176
SL12.05114.1751<0.0010.143
Error0.8585