About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 150143, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/150143
Research Article

An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)

Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards, Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Ulica Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 30 July 2013; Accepted 5 August 2013

Academic Editor: Martin G. Mack

Copyright © 2013 Jolanta Karpowicz and Krzysztof Gryz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “ICNIRP guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 4, no. 74, pp. 494–522, 1998.
  2. V. Robertson, A. Ward, J. Low, and A. Reed, Electrotherapy Explained. Principles and Practice, Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2006.
  3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, vol. 102, The WHO/IARC, IARC Monographs, Lyon, France, 2013.
  4. L. Vesselinowa, “Biosomatic effects of the electromagnetic fields on view of the physiotherapy personnel health,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 2013.
  5. A. Bortkiewicz, E. Gadzicka, W. Szynczak, and M. Zmyślony, “Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in radio and TV broadcasting stations workers,” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environment Health, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 446–455, 2012.
  6. K. Hansson Mild, T. Alanko, G. Decat et al., “Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques,” International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 3–33, 2009. View at Scopus
  7. European Standard EN50527-1:2010, Procedure for the assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields of workers bearing active implantable medical devices—Part 1: general.
  8. G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, F. Sibella, A. Paglialonga, and P. Ravazzani, “Electromagnetic interference and cochlear implants,” Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2007. View at Scopus
  9. G. Calcagnini, M. Floris, F. Censi, P. Cianfanelli, G. Scavino, and P. Bartolini, “Electromagnetic interference with infusion pumps from GSM mobile phones,” Health Physics, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 357–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. S. Pantchenko, S. J. Seidman, J. W. Guag, D. M. Witters Jr., and C. L. Sponberg, “Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters,” BioMedical Engineering Online, vol. 10, article 50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Christe, “Evaluation of current literature to determine the potential effects of radio frequency identification on technology used in diabetes care,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 331–335, 2009. View at Scopus
  12. P. L. Kalliomaki, M. Hietanen, K. Kalliomaki, O. Koistinen, and E. Valtonen, “Measurements of electric and magnetic stray fields produced by various electrodes of 27-MHz diathermy equipment,” Radio Science, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 29–34, 1982. View at Scopus
  13. K. Gryz and J. Karpowicz, Environmental Aspects of the Use of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in Physiotherapeutic Treatment, Annales of National Institute of Public Health; National Institute of Hygiene, 2013.
  14. K. Hansson Mild, “Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. G. Sarwer and A. Farrow, “Assessment of physiotherapists’ occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, vol. 10, pp. 312–327, 2013.
  16. Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields) (20th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC), Official Journal of the European Union /29.6.2013/L 179/1—21.
  17. European Standard EN, 50499:2008, Procedure for the assessment of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields.
  18. Council of the European Union Recommendation of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), 1999/519/EC, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 199/59.
  19. International Electrotechnical Committee / European Standard IEC EN, 60601-1-2:2007, Medical electrical equipment—Part 1-2: General requirements for safety. Collateral standard: Electromagnetic compatibility—Requirements and tests.
  20. P. Zradziński, “The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand operated industrial devices,” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 226–235, 2013.
  21. EN, 50413:2008, Basic standard on measurement and calculation procedures for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz–300 GHz).
  22. B. Hocking and K. Hansson Mild, “Guidance note: risk management of workers with medical electronic devices and metallic implants in electromagnetic fields,” International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 217–222, 2008. View at Scopus
  23. M. Tiikkaja, M. Hietanen, T. Alanko, and H. Lindholm, In Electromagnetic Fields with a Cardiac Pacemaker, Finish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, 2013.