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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 151363, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/151363
Research Article

Trace Level Determination of Polyether Ionophores in Feed

1Chemistry and Toxicology Unit, Research and Laboratory Department, Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
2Product Safety Unit, Control Department, Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki, Finland

Received 29 August 2012; Revised 24 October 2012; Accepted 24 October 2012

Academic Editor: Adam Huczynski

Copyright © 2013 Mervi Rokka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to determine six polyether ionophores (lasalocid sodium, monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, narasin, maduramicin ammonium alpha, and semduramicin sodium) in feed samples. The method developed was very straightforward, involving extraction with 84% acetonitrile of the coccidiostats from the feed samples and filtration of the raw extract prior to chromatographic analysis. Method validation included the determination of selectivity, linearity, specificity, repeatability, the limit of detection, limit of quantification, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), and recovery. Feed samples from the Finnish national feed control programme and suspected carry-over samples from a feed manufacturer were analysed in parallel with an existing liquid chromatography method coupled with ultraviolet detection. All feed control samples were negative in LC-UV, but with the developed MS method, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin were detected at concentrations of <0.025–0.73 mg/kg, <0.025–0.027 mg/kg, and <0.025–1.6 mg/kg, respectively. In suspected carry-over samples after an output of 2.0 tonnes of unmedicated feed in the pelletizer line, the concentrations of monensin, salinomycin, and narasin varied from undetected to 16 mg/kg. In the mixer line, after 3.2 tonnes of unmedicated feed output, the concentrations of monensin, salinomycin, and narasin varied from undetected to 2.4 mg/kg.