Figure 1: IL-1β release by THP-1-derived macrophages exposed for 6 h to different PM10 and carbon black (CB). The cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of summer Milan PM10, and one concentration (5 μg/cm2) of winter PM10 and CB. CTRL: unexposed cells. Results are the mean and s.d. of three independent experiments and presented as pg/mL released in the culture medium. versus CTRL.