About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 158093, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/158093
Research Article

Release of IL-1β Triggered by Milan Summer PM10: Molecular Pathways Involved in the Cytokine Release

1Polaris Research Centre, Department of Environmental Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano, Italy
2Department of Biology and Biotecnology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway
4UTTS Saluggia, ENEA, Strada Crescentino, 13040 Saluggia, Italy

Received 2 October 2012; Revised 22 December 2012; Accepted 3 January 2013

Academic Editor: Per Schwarze

Copyright © 2013 Rossella Bengalli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. W. Atkinson, H. R. Anderson, J. Sunyer et al., “Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 164, no. 10, pp. 1860–1866, 2001. View at Scopus
  2. B. Brunekreef and B. Forsberg, “Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 309–318, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Donaldson and W. MacNee, “Potential mechanisms of adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution (PM10),” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 203, no. 5-6, pp. 411–415, 2001. View at Scopus
  4. R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope III et al., “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the american heart association,” Circulation, vol. 121, pp. 2331–2378, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. C. A. Pope III, M. Ezzati, and D. W. Dockery, “Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 4, pp. 376–386, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Seaton, A. Soutar, V. Crawford et al., “Particulate air pollution and the blood,” Thorax, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1027–1032, 1999. View at Scopus
  7. M. Lippmann, D. B. Yeates, and R. E. Albert, “Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 337–362, 1980. View at Scopus
  8. P. I. Jalava, R. O. Salonen, A. S. Pennanen et al., “Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 213–225, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. S. Happo, R. O. Salonen, A. I. Hälinen et al., “Dose and time dependency of inflammatory responses in the mouse lung to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European cities,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 227–246, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Brüggemann, H. Gerwig, T. Gnauk, K. Müller, and H. Herrmann, “Influence of seasons, air mass origin and day of the week on size-segregated chemical composition of aerosol particles at a kerbside,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 15, pp. 2456–2463, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. G. Perrone, M. Gualtieri, L. Ferrero et al., “Seasonal variations in chemical composition and in vitro biological effects of fine PM from Milan,” Chemosphere, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1368–1377, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Pey, X. Querol, and A. Alastuey, “Discriminating the regional and urban contributions in the North-Western Mediterranean: PM levels and composition,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 13, pp. 1587–1596, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Kudo, K. Sekiguchi, K. H. Kim, and K. Sakamoto, “Spatial distributions of ultrafine particles and their behavior and chemical composition in relation to roadside sources,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, pp. 6403–6413, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. P. A. Steerenberg, L. van Amelsvoort, M. Lovik et al., “Relation between sources of particulate air pollution and biological effect parameters in samples from four european cities: an exploratory study,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 333–346, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. S. Happo, M. R. Hirvonen, A. I. Hälinen et al., “Seasonal variation in chemical composition of size-segregated urban air particles and the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 17–32, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Gualtieri, E. Longhin, M. Mattioli et al., “Gene expression profiling of A549 cells exposed to Milan PM2.5,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 209, pp. 136–145, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. Longhin, E. Pezzolato, P. Mantecca et al., “Season linked responses to fine and quasi-ultrafine Milan PM in cultured cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 27, pp. 551–559, 2012.
  18. R. B. Hetland, F. R. Cassee, M. Låg, M. Refsnes, E. Dybing, and P. E. Schwarze, “Cytokine release from alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter: heterogeneity in relation to size, city an season,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 2, article 4, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. F. Chung and I. M. Adcock, “Multifaceted mechanisms in COPD: inflammation, immunity, and tissue repair and destruction,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1334–1356, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Hornung, F. Bauernfeind, A. Halle et al., “Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization,” Nature Immunology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 847–856, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Dostert, V. Pétrilli, R. van Bruggen, C. Steele, B. T. Mossman, and J. Tschopp, “Innate immune activation through Nalp3 inflammasome sensing of asbestos and silica,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5876, pp. 674–677, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Franchi, T. Eigenbrod, R. Muñoz-Planillo, and G. Nuñez, “The inflammasome: a caspase-1-activation platform that regulates immune responses and disease pathogenesis,” Nature Immunology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. A. Kovach and T. J. Standiford, “Toll like receptors in diseases of the lung,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 11, pp. 1399–1406, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Becker, L. Dailey, J. M. Soukup, R. Silbajoris, and R. B. Devlin, “TLR-2 is involved in airway epithelial cell response to air pollution particles,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Schroder and J. Tschopp, “The Inflammasomes,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 821–832, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Rider, Y. Carmi, O. Guttman et al., “IL-1α and IL-1β recruit different myeloid cells and promote different stages of sterile inflammation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 187, no. 9, pp. 4835–4843, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. L. Cassel, S. C. Eisenbarth, S. S. Iyer et al., “The Nalp3 inflammasome is essential for the development of silicosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 26, pp. 9035–9040, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. D. Srivastava, W. N. Rom, J. Jagirdar, Y. I. E. Ting-An, T. Gordon, and K. M. Tchou-Wong, “Crucial role of interleukin-1β and nitric oxide synthase in silica-induced inflammation and apoptosis in mice,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 527–533, 2002. View at Scopus
  29. H. B. Yu and B. B. Finlay, “The caspase-1 inflammasome: a pilot of innate immune responses,” Cell Host and Microbe, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 198–208, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. J. Sandberg, M. Låg, J. A. Holme et al., “Comparison of non-crystalline silica nanoparticles in IL-1ß release from macrophages,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 9, article 32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. S. Yazdi, G. Guarda, N. Riteau et al., “Nanoparticles activate the NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome and cause pulmonary inflammation through release of IL-1α and IL-1β,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 45, pp. 19449–19454, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Morishige, Y. Yoshioka, H. Inakura et al., “The effect of surface modification of amorphous silica particles on NLRP3 inflammasome mediated IL-1β production, ROS production and endosomal rupture,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 26, pp. 6833–6842, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E.-J. Yang, S. Kim, J. S. Kim, and I.-H. Choi, “Inflammasome formation and IL-1β release by human blood monocytes in response to silver nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 28, pp. 6858–6867, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. N. Li, T. Xia, and A. E. Nel, “The role of oxidative stress in ambient particulate matter-induced lung diseases and its implications in the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1689–1699, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. J. A. Hirota, S. A. Hirota, S. M. Warner et al., “The airway epithelium nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 inflammasome is activated by urban particulate matter,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 129, pp. 1116–1125, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. E. J. Park and K. Park, “Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses induced by silica nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 18–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Zhou, A. S. Yazdi, P. Menu, and J. Tschopp, “A role for mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation,” Nature, vol. 469, pp. 221–225, 2011.
  38. A. Rubartelli, M. Gattorno, M. G. Netea, and C. A. Dinarello, “Interplay between redox status and inflammasome activation,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 559–566, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. Gualtieri, A. Franzetti, P. Mantecca et al., “In vitro effects of chemical and microbiological characterized Milan particulate matter,” Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 192–197, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Gualtieri, J. Øvrevik, J. A. Holme et al., “Differences in cytotoxicity versus pro-inflammatory potency of different PM fractions in human epithelial lung cells,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 29–39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. L. Kang, C. Moon, H. S. Lee et al., “Comparison of the biological activity between ultrafine and fine titanium dioxide particles in RAW 264.7 cells associated with oxidative stress,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 478–485, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Schorn, B. Frey, K. Lauber et al., “Sodium overload and water influx activate the NALP3 Inflammasome,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 286, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2011.
  43. C. Alexander and E. T. Rietschel, “Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 167–202, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. A. Mitchell, M. J. Paul-Clark, G. W. Clarke, S. K. McMaster, and N. Cartwright, “Critical role of toll-like receptors and nucleotide oligomerisation domain in the regulation of health and disease,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 193, no. 3, pp. 323–330, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. E. Plummer, S. Smiley-Jewell, and K. E. Pinkerton, “Impact of air pollution on lung inflammation and the role of Toll-like receptors,” International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research, vol. 4, pp. 43–57, 2012.
  46. A. Franzetti, I. Gandolfi, E. Gaspari, R. Ambrosini, and G. Bestetti, “Seasonal variability of bacteria in fine and coarse urban air particulate matter,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 90, pp. 745–753, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. E. Naik and V. M. Dixit, “Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species drive proinflammatory cytokine production,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 208, no. 3, pp. 417–420, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Bauernfeind, E. Bartok, A. Rieger, L. Franchi, G. Núñez, and V. Hornung, “Cutting edge: reactive oxygen species inhibitors block priming, but not activation, of the NLRP3 inflammasome,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 613–617, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. P. Arend, “The balance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra in disease,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 13, no. 4-5, pp. 323–340, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Strak, N. A. H. Janssen, K. J. Godri et al., “Respiratory health effects of airborne particulate matter: the role of particle size, composition, and oxidative potential—the RAPTES project,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 120, no. 8, pp. 1183–1189, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar