- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 175012, 14 pages
Production and Characterization of Keratinolytic Protease from New Wool-Degrading Bacillus Species Isolated from Egyptian Ecosystem
1Protein Research Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications, New Borg Al-Arab, P.O. Box. 21934, Alexandria, Egypt
2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
3King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Received 2 December 2012; Revised 7 March 2013; Accepted 28 March 2013
Academic Editor: Periasamy Anbu
Copyright © 2013 Mohamed A. Hassan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. Korniłłowicz-Kowalska and J. Bohacz, “Biodegradation of keratin waste: theory and practical aspects,” Waste Management, vol. 31, pp. 1689–1701, 2011.
- R. D. B. Fraser and D. A. D. Parry, “Macrofibril assembly in trichocyte (hard α-) keratins,” Journal of Structural Biology, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 319–325, 2003.
- L. N. Jones, “Hair structure anatomy and comparative anatomy,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 95–103, 2001.
- P. Pillai and G. Archana, “Hide depilation and feather disintegration studies with keratinolytic serine protease from a novel Bacillus subtilis isolate,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 643–650, 2008.
- V. Filipello Marchisio, “Karatinophilic fungi: their role in nature and degradation of keratinic substrates,” in Biology of Dermatophytes and Other Keratinophilic Fungi, R. K. S. Kushawaha and J. Guarro, Eds., vol. 17, pp. 86–92, Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, 2000.
- R. Gupta and P. Ramnani, “Microbial keratinases and their prospective applications:an overview,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 70, pp. 21–33, 2006.
- S. Sangali and A. Brandelli, “Feather keratin hydrolysis by a Vibrio sp. strain kr2,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 735–743, 2000.
- C. H. De Toni, M. F. Richter, J. R. Chagas, J. A. P. Henriques, and C. Termignoni, “Purification and characterization of an alkaline serine endopeptidase from a feather-degrading Xanthomonas maltophilia strain,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 342–348, 2002.
- F. S. Lucas, O. Broennimann, I. Febbraro, and P. Heeb, “High diversity among feather-degrading bacteria from a dry meadow soil,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 282–290, 2003.
- S. Yamamura, Y. Morita, Q. Hasan et al., “Characterization of a new keratin-degrading bacterium isolated from deer fur,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 595–600, 2002.
- E. H. Brutt and J. M. Ichida, “Keratinase produced by Bacillus licheniformis,” US Patent 5,877,000, 1999.
- A. Gousterova, D. Braikova, I. Goshev et al., “Degradation of keratin and collagen containinq wastes by newly isolated thermoactinomycetes or by alkaline hydrolysis,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 335–340, 2005.
- K. L. Evans, J. Crowder, and E. S. Miller, “Subtilisins of Bacillus spp. hydrolyze keratin and allow growth on feathers,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1004–1011, 2000.
- I. N. S. Dozie, C. N. Okeke, and N. C. Unaeze, “A thermostable, alkaline-active, keratinolytic proteinase from Chrysosporium keratinophilum,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 563–567, 1994.
- A. Riffel, F. Lucas, P. Heeb, and A. Brandelli, “Characterization of a new keratinolytic bacterium that completely degrades native feather keratin,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 179, no. 4, pp. 258–265, 2003.
- B. Zhang, D. Jiang, W. Zhou, H. Hao, and T. Niu, “Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus sp. 50-3 with highly alkaline keratinase activity from Calotes versicolor faeces,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 583–590, 2009.
- J. G. Holt, N. R. Krieg, P. H. A. Sneath, J. T. Staley, and S. T. Williams, Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 9th edition, 1994.
- J. Sambrook, E. F. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1989.
- F. Sanger, S. Nicklen, and A. R. Coulson, “DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 74, no. 12, pp. 5463–5467, 1977.
- K. Tamura, D. Peterson, N. Peterson, G. Stecher, M. Nei, and S. Kumar, “MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 28, pp. 2731–2739, 2011.
- A. A. Amara, R. S. Slem, and S. A. M. Shabeb, “The possibility to use crude proteases and lipases as biodetergent,” Global Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 104–114, 2009.
- W. Mao, R. Pan, and D. Freedman, “High production of alkaline protease by Bacillus licheniformis in a fed-batch fermentation using a synthetic medium,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1992.
- A. B. Vermelho, M. N. L. Meirelles, A. Lopes, S. D. G. Petinate, A. A. Chaia, and M. H. Branquinha, “Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates,” Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 755–760, 1996.
- A. A. Amara and A. E. Serour, “Wool quality improvement using thermophilic crude proteolytic microbial enzymes,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 554–560, 2008.
- J. L. Giongo, F. S. Lucas, F. Casarin, P. Heeb, and A. Brandelli, “Keratinolytic proteases of Bacillus species isolated from the Amazon basin showing remarkable de-hairing activity,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 375–382, 2007.
- U. K. Laemmli, “Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4,” Nature, vol. 227, no. 5259, pp. 680–685, 1970.
- H. Blum, H. Beier, and J. H. Gross, “Improved silver staining of plant proteins, RNA and DNA in polyacrylamide gels,” Electrophoresis, vol. 8, pp. 93–99, 1987.
- R. Gupta, Q. Beg, and P. Lorenz, “Bacterial alkaline proteases: molecular approaches and industrial applications,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2002.
- J. Cortez, P. L. R. Bonner, and M. Griffin, “Transglutaminase treatment of wool fabrics leads to resistance to detergent damage,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 379–386, 2005.
- J. M. Kim, W. J. Lim, and H. J. Suh, “Feather-degrading Bacillus species from poultry waste,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 287–291, 2001.
- M. Rozs, L. Manczinger, C. Vágvölgyi, and F. Kevei, “Secretion of a trypsin-like thiol protease by a new keratinolytic strain of Bacillus licheniformis,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 221–224, 2001.
- M. S. Roberts, L. K. Nakamura, and F. M. Cohan, “Bacillus mojavensis sp. nov., distinguishable from Bacillus subtilis by sexual isolation, divergence in DNA sequence, and differences in fatty acid composition,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 256–264, 1994.
- M. S. Roberts, L. K. Nakamura, and F. M. Cohan, “Bacillus vallismortis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from soil in Death Valley, California,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 470–475, 1996.
- L. T. Wang, F. L. Lee, C. J. Tai, and H. Kasai, “Comparison of gyrB gene sequences, 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization in the Bacillus subtilis group,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1846–1850, 2007.
- I. Szabó, A. Benedek, I. Mihály Szabó, and G. Barabás, “Feather degradation with a thermotolerant Streptomyces graminofaciens strain,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 253–255, 2000.
- A. Gushterova, E. Vasileva-Tonkova, E. Dimova, P. Nedkov, and T. Haertlé, “Keratinase production by newly isolated Antarctic actinomycete strains,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 6-7, pp. 831–834, 2005.
- T. Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, “Studies on the decomposition of keratin wastes by saprotrophic microfungi. P.I. Criteria for evaluating keratinolytic activity,” Acta Mycologica, vol. 32, pp. 51–79, 1997.
- B. Bockle, B. Galunsky, and R. Muller, “Characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 3705–3710, 1995.
- P. Bressollier, F. Letourneau, M. Urdaci, and B. Verneuil, “Purification and characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 2570–2576, 1999.
- H. Takami, Y. Nogi, and K. Horikoshi, “Reidentification of the keratinase-producing facultatively alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. AH-101 as Bacillus halodurans,” Extremophiles, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 293–296, 1999.
- S. Sangali and A. Brandelli, “Isolation and characterization of a novel feather-degrading bacterial strain,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology A, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2000.
- X. Lin, D. W. Kelemen, E. S. Miller, and J. C. H. Shih, “Nucleotide sequence and expression of kerA, the gene encoding a keratinolytic protease of Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1469–1474, 1995.
- M. Kojima, M. Kanai, M. Tominaga, S. Kitazume, A. Inoue, and K. Horikoshi, “Isolation and characterization of a feather-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pseudofirmus FA30-01,” Extremophiles, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 229–235, 2006.
- T. I. Zaghloul, “Cloned Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease (aprA) gene showing high level of keratinolytic activity,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology A, vol. 70–72, pp. 199–205, 1998.
- H. J. Suh and H. K. Lee, “Characterization of a keratinolytic serine protease from bacillus subtilis KS-1,” Protein Journal, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 165–169, 2001.
- H. S. Joo, C. G. Kumar, G. C. Park, S. R. Paik, and C. S. Chang, “Oxidant and SDS-stable alkaline protease from Bacillus clausii I-52: production and some properties,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 2003.
- R. Oberoi, Q. K. Beg, S. Puri, R. K. Saxena, and R. Gupta, “Characterization and wash performance analysis of an SDS-stable alkaline protease from a Bacillus sp.,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 493–497, 2001.