About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 180453, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/180453
Research Article

A Posteriori Comparison of Natural and Surgical Destabilization Models of Canine Osteoarthritis

1Osteoarthritis Research Unit, Université de Montréal Hospital Centre, Notre-Dame Hospital, 1560 Sherbrooke St. East, Montreal, QC, Canada H2L 4M1
2GREPAQ, Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM), Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6
3Department of Clinical Sciences, FVM, Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6
4Hôpital Vétérinaire Rive-Sud, 7415 Taschereau, Brossard, QC, Canada J4Y 1A2
5Clinique Vétérinaire Languedocia, 395 Ruc Maurice Béjart, 34080 Montpellier, France

Received 5 July 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013

Academic Editor: Oreste Gualillo

Copyright © 2013 Maxim Moreau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J.-P. Pelletier, C. Boileau, R. D. Altman, and J. Martel-Pelletier, “Experimental models of osteoarthritis: usefulness in the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs/agents,” Therapy, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 621–634, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Lampropoulou-Adamidou, P. Lelovas, E. V. Karadimas, et al., “Useful animal models for the research of osteoarthritis,” European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. H. Gregory, N. Capito, K. Kuroki, A. M. Stoker, J. L. Cook, and S. L. Sherman, “A review of translational animal models for knee osteoarthritis,” Arthritis, vol. 2012, Article ID 764621, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. U. G. Longo, M. Loppini, C. Fumo, et al., “Osteoarthritis: new insights in animal models,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 6, pp. 558–563, 2012.
  5. H. De Rooster, T. De Bruin, and H. Van Bree, “Morphologic and functional features of the canine cruciate ligaments,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 769–780, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. N. Frost-Christensen, S. C. Mastbergen, M. E. Vianen et al., “Degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, and pain/disability in dogs following destabilization or articular cartilage grooving of the stifle joint,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1327–1335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Lahm, M. Uhl, M. Edlich, C. Erggelet, J. Haberstroh, and P. C. Kreuz, “An experimental canine model for subchondral lesions of the knee joint,” Knee, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 51–55, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. E. Panula, H. J. Helminen, and I. Kiviranta, “Slowly progressive osteoarthritis after tibial valgus osteotomy in young beagle dogs,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 343, pp. 192–202, 1997. View at Scopus
  9. H. Troyer, “Experimental models of osteoarthritis: a review,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 362–374, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. P. Pelletier, C. Boileau, R. D. Altman, and J. Martel-Pelletier, “Animal models of osteoarthritis,” in Rheumatology, M. C. Hochberg, et al., Ed., pp. 1731–1739, Mosby; Elsevier, 5th edition, 2010.
  11. M. Moreau, P. Rialland, J.-P. Pelletier et al., “Tiludronate treatment improves structural changes and symptoms of osteoarthritis in the canine anterior cruciate ligament model,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 13, no. 3, article R98, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Boileau, J. Martel-Pelletier, J. Caron et al., “Oral treatment with a Brachystemma calycinum D don plant extract reduces disease symptoms and the development of cartilage lesions in experimental dog osteoarthritis: inhibition of protease-activated receptor 2,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1179–1184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. N. Smith Jr., S. L. Myers, K. D. Brandt, E. A. Mickler, and M. E. Albrecht, “Effect of intraarticular hyaluronan injection on vertical ground reaction force and progression of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament transection,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 325–334, 2005. View at Scopus
  14. S. A. Johnston, “Overview of pain in the lame patient,” Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2001. View at Scopus
  15. S. A. Martinez, “Congenital conditions that lead to osteoarthritis in the dog,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 735–758, 1997. View at Scopus
  16. S. A. Martinez and G. S. Coronado, “Acquired conditions that lead to osteoarthritis in the dog,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 759–775, 1997. View at Scopus
  17. M. Moreau, B. Lussier, J. P. Pelletier, et al., “Brachystemma calycinum D. don effectively reduces the locomotor disability in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 646191, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. D. J. Imhoff, W. J. Gordon-Evans, R. B. Evans, A. L. Johnson, D. J. Griffon, and K. S. Swanson, “Evaluation of S-adenosyl l-methionine in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial for treatment of presumptive osteoarthritis in the dog,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 228–232, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Moreau, J. Dupuis, N. H. Bonneau, and M. Desnoyers, “Clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical, carprofen and meloxicam for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis,” Veterinary Record, vol. 152, no. 11, pp. 323–329, 2003. View at Scopus
  20. S. C. Budsberg, S. A. Johnston, P. D. Schwarz, C. E. DeCamp, and R. Claxton, “Efficacy of etodolac for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip joints in dogs,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 214, no. 2, pp. 206–210, 1999. View at Scopus
  21. C. Boileau, J. Martel-Pelletier, F. Abram et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging can accurately assess the long-term progression of knee structural changes in experimental dog osteoarthritis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 926–932, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M.-A. D'Anjou, M. Moreau, É. Troncy et al., “Osteophytosis, subchondral bone sclerosis, joint effusion and soft tissue thickening in canine experimental stifle osteoarthritis: comparison between 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and computed radiography,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 166–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M.-A. d'Anjou, E. Troncy, M. Moreau et al., “Temporal assessment of bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in a canine model of knee osteoarthritis: impact of sequence selection,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1307–1311, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. L. Aragon, E. H. Hofmeister, and S. C. Budsberg, “Systematic review of clinical trials of treatments for osteoarthritis in dogs,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 230, no. 4, pp. 514–521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. M. Quinn, N. S. Keuler, Y. Lu, M. L. E. Faria, P. Muir, and M. D. Markel, “Evaluation of agreement between numerical rating scales, visual analogue scoring scales, and force plate gait analysis in dogs,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 360–367, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. M. McLaughlin, “Kinetic and kinematic gait analysis in dogs,” Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 193–201, 2001. View at Scopus
  27. L. Blond, D. E. Thrall, S. C. Roe, N. Chailleux, and I. D. Robertson, “Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for meniscal tears in dogs affected with naturally occuring cranial cruciate ligament rupture,” Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 425–431, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Moreau, C. Boileau, J. Martel-Pelletier, J. Brunet, S. Laufer, and J.-P. Pelletier, “Licofelone reduces progression of structural changes in a canine model of osteoarthritis under curative conditions: effect on protease expression and activity,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1176–1182, 2006. View at Scopus
  29. P. Rialland, S. Bichot, M. Moreau, et al., “Clinical validity of outcome pain measures in naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis,” BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 8, no. 1, article 162, 2012.
  30. M. Moreau, B. Lussier, M. Doucet, G. Vincent, J. Martel-Pelletier, and J.-P. Pelletier, “Efficacy of licofelone in dogs with clinical osteoarthritis,” Veterinary Record, vol. 160, no. 17, pp. 584–588, 2007. View at Scopus
  31. D. C. Brown, R. C. Boston, and J. T. Farrar, “Use of an activity monitor to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 237, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. W.-L. Cheung, R. C. M. Ho, Y. Lim, and A. Mak, “Conducting a meta-analysis: basics and good practices,” International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Atkinson and A. M. Nevill, “Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine,” Sports Medicine, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 217–238, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. P. Weir, “Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 231–240, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measurement error,” British Medical Journal, vol. 313, no. 7059, article 744, 1996. View at Scopus
  36. F. M. Kovacs, V. Abraira, A. Royuela et al., “Minimum detectable and minimal clinically important changes for pain in patients with nonspecific neck pain,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 9, article 43, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. D. Brandt, “Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog: a model of osteoarthritis,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 22–32, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. M. Russell, “The development of the three Rs concept,” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 298–304, 1995. View at Scopus
  39. A. Manciocco, F. Chiarotti, A. Vitale, G. Calamandrei, G. Laviola, and E. Alleva, “The application of Russell and Burch 3R principle in rodent models of neurodegenerative disease: the case of Parkinson's disease,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 18–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. P. Andriacchi, S. Koo, and S. F. Scanlan, “Gait mechanics influence healthy cartilage morphology and osteoarthritis of the knee,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. P. Andriacchi, P. L. Briant, S. L. Bevill, and S. Koo, “Rotational changes at the knee after ACL injury cause cartilage thinning,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 442, pp. 39–44, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. P. Andriacchi and A. Mündermann, “The role of ambulatory mechanics in the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 514–518, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. P. Andriacchi, A. Mündermann, R. L. Smith, E. J. Alexander, C. O. Dyrby, and S. Koo, “A framework for the in vivo pathomechanics of osteoarthritis at the knee,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 447–457, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Tashman, W. Anderst, P. Kolowich, S. Havstad, and S. Arnoczky, “Kinematics of the ACL-deficient canine knee during gait: serial changes over two years,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 931–941, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Yusuf, M. C. Kortekaas, I. Watt, T. W. J. Huizinga, and M. Kloppenburg, “Do knee abnormalities visualised on MRI explain knee pain in knee osteoarthritis? a systematic Review,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. M. Wildi, J.-P. Raynauld, J. Martel-Pelletier et al., “Chondroitin sulphate reduces both cartilage volume loss and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis patients starting as early as 6 months after initiation of therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study using MRI,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 982–989, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Anandacoomarasamy, G. Smith, S. Leibman et al., “Cartilage defects are associated with physical disability in obese adults,” Rheumatology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1290–1293, 2009. View at Scopus
  48. Y. Zhang, M. Nevitt, J. Niu et al., “Fluctuation of knee pain and changes in bone marrow lesions, effusions, and synovitis on magnetic resonance imaging,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 691–699, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Zhai, F. Cicuttini, C. Ding, F. Scott, P. Garnero, and G. Jones, “Correlates of knee pain in younger subjects,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. Torres, D. D. Dunlop, C. Peterfy et al., “The relationship between specific tissue lesions and pain severity in persons with knee osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1033–1040, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J.-P. Raynauld, J. Martel-Pelletier, P. Bias et al., “Protective effects of licofelone, a 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, versus naproxen on cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis: a first multicentre clinical trial using quantitative MRI,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 938–947, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M.-J. Berthiaume, J.-P. Raynauld, J. Martel-Pelletier et al., “Meniscal tear and extrusion are strongly associated with progression of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 556–563, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. L. Davies-Tuck, A. E. Wluka, A. J. Teichtahl et al., “Association between meniscal tears and the peak external knee adduction moment and foot rotation during level walking in postmenopausal women without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 10, no. 3, article R58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. B. Little and D. J. Hunter, “Post-traumatic osteoarthritis: from mouse models to clinical trials,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 9, pp. 485–497, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. B. L. Proffen, M. McElfresh, B. C. Fleming, and M. M. Murray, “A comparative anatomical study of the human knee and six animal species,” Knee, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 493–499, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Lorenz, W. Wenz, M. Ivancic, E. Steck, and W. Richter, “Early and stable upregulation of collagen type II, collagen type I and YKL40 expression levels in cartilage during early experimental osteoarthritis occurs independent of joint location and histological grading,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. R156–R165, 2005. View at Scopus
  57. J. P. Pelletier, M. Kapoor, H. Fahmi, et al., “Strontium ranelate reduces the progression of experimental dog osteoarthritis by inhibiting the expression of key proteases in cartilage and of IL-1beta in the synovium,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 250–257, 2013.
  58. J. Y. Reginster, J. Badurski, N. Bellamy, et al., “Efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: results of a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 179–186, 2013.
  59. S. Jauernig, A. Schweighauser, M. Reist, B. Von Rechenberg, P. Schawalder, and D. Spreng, “The effects of doxycycline on nitric oxide and stromelysin production in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture,” Veterinary Surgery, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 132–139, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. P. Yu Jr., G. N. Smith Jr., K. D. Brandt, S. L. Myers, B. L. O'Connor, and D. A. Brandt, “Reduction of the severity of canine osteoarthritis by prophylactic treatment with oral doxycycline,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1150–1159, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. W. Marshall, V. Manolopoulos, K. Mancer, J. Staples, and A. Damyanovich, “Amelioration of disease severity by intraarticular hylan therapy in bilateral canine osteoarthritis,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 416–425, 2000. View at Scopus
  62. W. Wenz, S. J. Breusch, J. Graf, and U. Stratmann, “Ultrastructural findings after intra-articular application of hyaluronan in a canine model of arthropathy,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 604–612, 2000. View at Scopus
  63. S. L. Myers, K. D. Brandt, D. B. Burr, B. L. O'Connor, and M. Albrecht, “Effects of a bisphosphonate on bone histomorphometry and dynamics in the canine cruciate deficiency model of osteoarthritis,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2645–2653, 1999. View at Scopus
  64. D. H. Manicourt, R. D. Altman, J. M. Williams, et al., “Treatment with calcitonin suppresses the responses of bone, cartilage, and synovium in the early stages of canine experimental osteoarthritis and significantly reduces the severity of the cartilage lesions,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1159–1167, 1999.
  65. G. N. Smith, Jr, S. L. Myers, K. D. Brandt, E. A. Mickler, and M. E. Albrecht, “Diacerhein treatment reduces the severity of osteoarthritis in the canine cruciate-deficiency model of osteoarthritis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 545–554, 1999.
  66. B. A. McArthur, C. J. Dy, P. D. Fabricant, and A. G. Valle, “Long term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of hyaluronic acid injection in patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee,” Patient Preference and Adherence, vol. 6, pp. 905–910, 2012.
  67. E. Nüesch, A. W. Rutjes, S. Trelle, S. Reichenbach, and P. Jüni, “Doxycycline for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD007323, 2009. View at Scopus
  68. R. C. Hamdy and D. N. Daley, “Oral calcitonin,” International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 4, pp. 471–479, 2012.
  69. J. Iwamoto, T. Takeda, Y. Sato, and H. Matsumoto, “Effects of risedronate on osteoarthritis of the knee,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 164–170, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. E. M. Bartels, H. Bliddal, P. K. Schøndorff, R. D. Altman, W. Zhang, and R. Christensen, “Symptomatic efficacy and safety of diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. D. Brandt, S. A. Mazzuca, B. P. Katz et al., “Effects of doxycycline on progression of osteoarthritis: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 2015–2025, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. N. Bellamy, J. Campbell, V. Robinson, T. Gee, R. Bourne, and G. Wells, “Viscosupplementation for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD005321, 2005. View at Scopus
  73. M. Dougados, M. Nguyen, L. Berdah, et al., “Evaluation of the structure-modifying effects of diacerein in hip osteoarthritis: ECHODIAH, a three-year, placebo-controlled trial. Evaluation of the chondromodulating effect of diacerein in OA of the Hip,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2539–2547, 2001.
  74. W. C. Bae, M. M. Payanal, A. C. Chen et al., “Topographic patterns of cartilage lesions in knee osteoarthritis,” Cartilage, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 10–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. Tesio, “Outcome measurement in behavioural sciences: a view on how to shift attention from means to individuals and why,” International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. S. Schmitt and R. P. Di Fabio, “Reliable change and minimum important difference (MID) proportions facilitated group responsiveness comparisons using individual threshold criteria,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1008–1018, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. P. Rialland, S. Bichot, B. Lussier, et al., “Effect of a green-lipped mussel-enriched diet on pain behaviours and functioning in dogs with clinical osteoarthritis,” Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2013.
  78. M. Moreau, E. Troncy, J. R. Del Castillo, C. Bedard, D. Gauvin, and B. Lussier, “Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 830–837, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. A. Hielm-Bjorkman, R. M. Tulamo, H. Salonen, and M. Raekallio, “Evaluating complementary therapies for canine osteoarthritis—Part II: a homeopathic combination preparation (Zeel),” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 465–471, 2009.
  80. M. Moreau, J. Dupuis, N. H. Bonneau, and M. Lécuyer, “Clinical evaluation of a powder of quality elk velvet antler for the treatment of osteoarthrosis in dogs,” Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 133–139, 2004. View at Scopus
  81. M. G. Conzemius and R. B. Evans, “Caregiver placebo effect for dogs with lameness from osteoarthritis,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 241, no. 10, pp. 1314–1319, 2012.
  82. B. KuKanich, “Outpatient oral analgesics in dogs and cats beyond nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs,” Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1109–1125, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. J. N. Farr, S. B. Going, T. G. Lohman et al., “Physical activity levels in patients with early knee osteoarthritis measured by accelerometry,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1229–1236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. M. Greene, D. J. Marcellin-Little, and B. D. Lascelles, “Associations among exercise duration, lameness severity, and hip joint range of motion in Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 242, no. 11, pp. 1528–1533, 2013.
  85. B. W. J. H. Penninx, W. J. Rejeski, J. Pandya et al., “Exercise and depressive symptoms: a comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. P124–P132, 2002. View at Scopus
  86. B. W. J. H. Penninx, S. P. Messier, W. J. Rejeski et al., “Physical exercise and the prevention of disability in activities of daily living in older persons with osteoarthritis,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 19, pp. 2309–2316, 2001. View at Scopus
  87. W. H. Ettinger Jr., R. Burns, S. P. Messier et al., “A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST),” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 1997. View at Scopus