About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 185282, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/185282
Research Article

Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein

1Fish Health Management Division, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751002, India
2Biomedical Informatics Centre, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agamkuan, Patna, Bihar 800007, India

Received 30 March 2013; Revised 10 June 2013; Accepted 11 June 2013

Academic Editor: Claudio M. Soares

Copyright © 2013 Bikash Ranjan Sahoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40 ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20 ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, αB-helix, αC-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, αB-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling.