Figure 2: TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3 mRNA expression levels in lung tissue of ascitic broilers, broilers with cardiac failure but without ascites (CF), and healthy broilers subjected to control (solid bars) and cold-temperature treated groups (white bars). The TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3 mRNA expression levels were normalized to those of the internal control for beta-actin (ACTB). Values are means ± SE. N of birds were 11, 12, and 4 for healthy, cardiac failure, and ascitic birds in control group and 9, 6, and 9, respectively, for cold group. The relative expression values were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s post hoc comparisons. .