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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 190486, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/190486
Review Article

Vasculogenic Cytokines in Wound Healing

Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA

Received 1 October 2012; Revised 8 January 2013; Accepted 23 January 2013

Academic Editor: Jorge Berlanga Acosta

Copyright © 2013 Victor W. Wong and Jeffrey D. Crawford. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic wounds represent a growing healthcare burden that particularly afflicts aged, diabetic, vasculopathic, and obese patients. Studies have shown that nonhealing wounds are characterized by dysregulated cytokine networks that impair blood vessel formation. Two distinct forms of neovascularization have been described: vasculogenesis (driven by bone-marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells) and angiogenesis (local endothelial cell sprouting from existing vasculature). Researchers have traditionally focused on angiogenesis but defects in vasculogenesis are increasingly recognized to impact diseases including wound healing. A more comprehensive understanding of vasculogenic cytokine networks may facilitate the development of novel strategies to treat recalcitrant wounds. Further, the clinical success of endothelial progenitor cell-based therapies will depend not only on the delivery of the cells themselves but also on the appropriate cytokine milieu to promote tissue regeneration. This paper will highlight major cytokines involved in vasculogenesis within the context of cutaneous wound healing.