Table 1: Cytokines important in adult vasculogenesis.

CytokineProposed vasculogenic mechanism

VEGFEndothelial cell motility, proliferation, and survival
EPC mobilization and homing
Upregulation of other vasculogenic cytokines
Promotes integrin expression

SDF-1Trafficking of EPCs and HSCs
Hypoxia-responsive EPC recruitment

PDGFPericyte recruitment and vessel maturation
EPC migration and expansion
Closely associated with VEGF pathways

FGFVEGF-dependent neovascularization
Bone-marrow-derived perivascular cell recruitment
Vascular remodeling

GM-CSFEPC recruitment and mobilization
Monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation
Modulation of immune and inflammatory pathways

S1PPromotes migration of embryonic angioblasts and endothelial cells
Blood vessel maturation
May augment vasculogenic effects of PDGF

MMP-9EPC recruitment and mobilization
Induces release of vasculogenic growth factors from the extracellular matrix

TGFβPromotes VEGF pathways
Enhances MSC differentiation into pericytes
Activates EPC transdifferentiation into smooth muscle