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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 193048, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/193048
Review Article

Role of Dopaminergic Receptors in Glaucomatous Disease Modulation

1Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrologic, Anesthesiologic and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Department of Sense Organs, Centre of Ocular Electrophysiology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00161 Rome, Italy

Received 14 April 2013; Revised 6 June 2013; Accepted 12 June 2013

Academic Editor: Paolo Fogagnolo

Copyright © 2013 Nicola Pescosolido et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Both studies on animals and humans suggest the presence of dopamine (DA) receptors in the anterior segment of the eye. Their role in the dynamics of intraocular pressure (IOP) is not yet clear. DA2 and DA3 receptors are mainly located on postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings. Their stimulation reduces the release of norepinephrine and suppresses the production of aqueous humor. DA1 receptors seem to be more expressed by the ciliary body and the outflow pathway of aqueous humor. The administration of DA1-selective agonists stimulates the production of aqueous humor, increasing IOP, whereas DA2- and DA3-selective agonists could reduce IOP and, therefore, the risk to develop a glaucoma (GL). GL is a broad spectrum of eye diseases which have in common the damage to the optic nerve and the progressive loss of the visual field. Further studies are desirable to clarify the role of the dopaminergic system and the usefulness of DA2 and DA3 agonists in reducing IOP.