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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 194176, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/194176
Review Article

Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects

1Cirad-Bios, UMR-InterTryp, Montpellier 34000, France
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
3Center for Parasitic Organisms, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
4Central Mindanao University, Mindanao, Philippines

Received 28 April 2013; Accepted 5 July 2013

Academic Editor: Jude M. Przyborski

Copyright © 2013 Marc Desquesnes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies). It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras) and biological vectors (vampire bats). Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death), which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect.