Table 3: Some natural products, synthetic agents, and polymeric materials with reported antifungal activities.

General sourceSpecific sourceBiological active moleculesExamplesReferences

Natural productsPlantsEssential oils; terpenoids; saponins; phenolic compounds; alkaloids; peptides; proteinsSteroidal saponins, sesquiterpenoids[47, 48]
Marine organismsAnthracycline-related compounds; lipopeptides; pentacyclic compoundsXestodecalactone B, seragikinone A[49]
Endophytic fungiSecondary metabolites; peptides; pyrones cryptocandin, pestalopyrone[50]
Microorganisms of terrestrial environmentLipopeptides; terpenoidsEchinocandins, enfumafungin[50, 51]

Synthetic agentsOrganically synthesized or derived compounds
(not polymeric materials)
Compounds based on N,N-dimethylbiguanide complexesMe (N,N-dimethylbiguanide)2(CH3COO)2·nH2O where Me: Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn[52, 53]
Derived compounds from traditional antifungal structuresImidazole derivatives, amine-derived bis-azoles[54, 55]
Synthetic derived peptides Lactoferrin-derived peptides[56]
Derived compounds from natural products Micafungin sodium, anidulafungin, caspofungin acetate, pneumocandin, and enfumafungin derivatives[57, 58]

Polymeric materialsPolymeric materials Polymers with quaternary nitrogen atomsPolymers containing aromatic or heterocyclic structures[59]
Cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes[58]
Polymers with quaternary nitrogen atoms within the main chain.[60]
Block copolymers containing quaternary ammonium salt[61]
Synthetic peptides, synthetic dendrimeric peptides[62, 63]
Antifungal peptides mimicsArylamide and phenylene ethynylene backbone polymers[64]
Polynorbornene derivatives[65]
Polymethacrylate and polymethacrylamide platforms containing hydrophobic and cationic side chains[66, 67]
Polymers with superficial activityFluorine-containing polymers[68]
Polymers containing different contents of halogensChlorine-containing phenyl methacrylate polymers[69, 70]
Polymeric N-halamines[71]
ChelatesPolymer-copper(II)-bipyridyl complex[72]
N-vinylimidazole copolymerized with phenacyl methacrylate[73]
Imidazole derivative polymers2-[(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)amino]-2-oxo-ethyl methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate[71]
Polymers loaded with antifungal compounds Organic compounds[7476]
Inorganic compounds[7779]