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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 205467, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/205467
Review Article

Hematological Disorders following Gastric Bypass Surgery: Emerging Concepts of the Interplay between Nutritional Deficiency and Inflammation

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
2Department of Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA

Received 29 April 2013; Revised 2 July 2013; Accepted 4 July 2013

Academic Editor: Benoît Stijlemans

Copyright © 2013 Mingyi Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome are among the most common and detrimental metabolic diseases of the modern era, affecting over 50% of the adult population in the United States. Surgeries designed to promote weight loss, known as bariatric surgery, typically involve a gastric bypass procedure and have shown high success rates for treating morbid obesity. However, following gastric bypass surgery, many patients develop chronic anemia, most commonly due to iron deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamins B1, B12, folate, A, K, D, and E and copper have also been reported after surgery. Copper deficiency can cause hematological abnormalities with or without neurological complications. Despite oral supplementation and normal serum concentrations of iron, copper, folate, and vitamin B12, some patients present with persistent anemia after surgery. The evaluation of hematologic disorders after gastric bypass surgery must take into account issues unique to the postsurgery setting that influence the development of anemia and other cytopenias. In this paper, the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the hematological disorders associated with gastric bypass surgery are reviewed, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are discussed.