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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 230805, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/230805
Review Article

Extracellular Matrix Degradation and Tissue Remodeling in Periprosthetic Loosening and Osteolysis: Focus on Matrix Metalloproteinases, Their Endogenous Tissue Inhibitors, and the Proteasome

1Department of Anatomy, Histology, Embryology, Medical School, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 31 May 2013

Academic Editor: Achilleas D. Theocharis

Copyright © 2013 Spyros A. Syggelos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The leading complication of total joint replacement is periprosthetic osteolysis, which often results in aseptic loosening of the implant, leading to revision surgery. Extracellular matrix degradation and connective tissue remodeling around implants have been considered as major biological events in the periprosthetic loosening. Critical mediators of wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis released by periprosthetic synovial cells (mainly macrophages) are inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteolytic enzymes, mainly matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Numerous studies reveal a strong interdependence of MMP expression and activity with the molecular mechanisms that control the composition and turnover of periprosthetic matrices. MMPs can either actively modulate or be modulated by the molecular mechanisms that determine the debris-induced remodeling of the periprosthetic microenvironment. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms that control the composition, turnover, and activity of matrix macromolecules within the periprosthetic microenvironment exposed to wear debris are summarized and presented. Special emphasis is given to MMPs and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), as well as to the proteasome pathway, which appears to be an elegant molecular regulator of specific matrix macromolecules (including specific MMPs and TIMPs). Furthermore, strong rationale for potential clinical applications of the described molecular mechanisms to the treatment of periprosthetic loosening and osteolysis is provided.