About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 231497, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/231497
Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Fattening Pigs Farm from Yucatan, Mexico

1Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, FMVZ, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil Km. 15.5, Apdo. Postal 4-116 Itzimná, 97100 Mérida, YUC, Mexico
2Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales “Dr. Hideyo Noguchi” Unidad Biomédica, CA. Biomedicina de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitarias, Laboratorio de Biología Celular, Avenida Itzáes No. 490 x Calle 59 Colonia Centro, 97000 Mérida, YUC, Mexico

Received 25 January 2013; Revised 15 May 2013; Accepted 15 May 2013

Academic Editor: María Sol Arias Vázquez

Copyright © 2013 A. Ortega-Pacheco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Carrada-Bravo, “Toxoplasmosis: parasitosis re-emergente del nuevo milenio,” Revista Mexicana de Patología Clínica, vol. 52, pp. 151–162, 2005.
  2. J. P. Dubey, “The history of Toxoplasma gondii—the first 100 years,” Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 467–475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. G. Montoya and O. Liesenfeld, “Toxoplasmosis,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9425, pp. 1965–1976, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. J. Luft, R. Hafner, A. H. Korzun et al., “Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 14, pp. 995–1000, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. G. Montoya and J. S. Remington, “Toxoplasmic chorioretinitis in the setting of acute acquired toxoplasmosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 277–282, 1996. View at Scopus
  6. J. McAuley, K. M. Boyer, D. Patel et al., “Early and longitudinal evaluations of treated infants and children and untreated historical patients with congenital toxoplasmosis: the Chicago collaborative treatment trial,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 38–72, 1994. View at Scopus
  7. D. Hill and J. P. Dubey, “Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis, and prevention,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 634–640, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. J. C. Cook, R. E. Gilbert, W. Buffolano et al., “Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case control study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, pp. 127–128, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. M. C. Roghmann, C. T. Faulkner, A. Lefkowitz, S. Patton, J. Zimmerman, and J. G. Morris, “Decreased seroprevalence for Toxoplasma gondii in Seventh Day Adventists in Maryland,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 790–792, 1999. View at Scopus
  10. J. van der Giessen, M. Fonville, M. Bouwknegt, M. Langelaar, and A. Vollema, “Seroprevalence of Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii in pigs from different housing systems in The Netherlands,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 148, no. 3-4, pp. 371–374, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. P. Dubey, J. C. Leighty, V. C. Beal, W. R. Anderson, C. D. Andrews, and P. Thulliez, “National seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 517–521, 1991. View at Scopus
  12. J. P. Dubey, R. M. Weigel, A. M. Siegel et al., “Sources and reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infection on 47 swine farms in Illinois,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 723–729, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Z. García-Vazquez, R. R. Cruz, G. Díaz-García, and O. Hernández-Baumgarten, “Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, swine and goats in four Mexican states,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 17, pp. 127–132, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. D. E. Hill, S. Chirukandoth, and J. P. Dubey, “Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals,” Animal Health Research Reviews, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 41–61, 2005. View at Scopus
  15. J. P. Dubey, K. D. Murrell, and R. Fayer, “Persistence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of pigs fed oocysts,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1941–1943, 1984. View at Scopus
  16. J. P. Dubey, H. R. Gamble, D. Hill, C. Sreekumar, S. Romand, and P. Thulliez, “High prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii infection in market weight pigs from a farm in Massachusetts,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1234–1238, 2002. View at Scopus
  17. A. Kijlstra and E. Jongert, “Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1359–1370, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Villamar-Angulo and M. A. Barrera-Wadgymar, Situación Actual Y Perspectiva de la Producción de Carne de Porcino en México, SAGARPA, 2006, http://www.sagarpa.gob.mx/ganaderia/Publicaciones/Lists/Estudios%20de%20situacin%20actual%20y%20perspectiva/Attachments/14/sitpor06d.pdf.
  19. INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), Anuario Estadístico del Estado de Yucatán, Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografía e Informática de México., 2002.
  20. J. C. Segura-Correa and N. Honhold, Métodos de Muestreo Para La Producción Y La Salud Animal, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Yucatan, Mexico, 2000.
  21. S. Jalal, C. E. Nord, M. Lappalainen et al., “Rapid and sensitive diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections by PCR,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 937–939, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Carlin, D. Davis, M. Weiss, B. Schultz, and D. Troyer, “Expression of early transcription factors Oct-4, Sox-2 and Nanog by porcine umbilical cord (PUC) matrix cells,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 4, pp. 1–13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. SAS Institute, SAS/STAT Software. The GENMOD Procedure, Version 9, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 2002.
  24. D. E. Hill, C. Haley, B. Wagner, H. R. Gamble, and J. P. Dubey, “Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in the US swine herd using sera collected during the national animal health monitoring survey (Swine 2006),” Zoonoses and Public Health, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. T. Cavalcante, D. M. Aguiar, D. Chiebao et al., “Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats and pigs from Rural Western Amazon, Brazil,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 863–864, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Poljak, C. E. Dewey, R. M. Friendship et al., “Pig and herd level prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs in 2001, 2003, and 2004,” Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 303–310, 2008. View at Scopus
  27. P. Lind, J. Haugegaard, A. Wingstrand, and S. A. Henriksen, “The time course of the specific antibody response by various ELISAS in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Lehmann, D. H. Graham, E. Dahl et al., “Transmission dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii on a pig farm,” Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 135–141, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. I. R. Tizard, Inmunología Veterinaria, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, Sexta edition, 2002.
  30. K. Switaj, A. Master, M. Skrzypczak, and P. Zaborowski, “Recent trends in molecular diagnostics for Toxoplasma gondii infections,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 170–176, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. J. Castillo-Morales, K. Y. Acosta Viana, E. Guzmán-Marín et al., “Prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from the tropics of Mexico using serological and molecular Tests,” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. 2012, Article ID 529108, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. Dumétre and M. L. Dardé, “How to detec Toxoplasma gondii oocyst in enviroment samples,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 27, pp. 651–661, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. P. Dubey, “Toxoplasma gondii oocyst survival under defined temperatures,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 862–865, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. W. Drew, “A review of evidence for immunosuppression due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus,” Veterinary Research, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 27–39, 2000. View at Scopus
  35. R. Correa, I. Cedeño, C. de Escobar, and I. Fuentes, “Increased urban seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infecting swine in Panama,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 153, no. 1-2, pp. 9–11, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. P. Dubey, “The life of cycle of Toxoplasma gondii,” in Toxoplasma. Molecular and Cellular Biology, J. W. Ajioka and D. Soldati, Eds., pp. 3–7, Horizon Bioscience, Oxford, UK, 2007.
  37. S. Klein, M. Wendt, W. Baumgärtner, and P. Wohlsein, “Systemic toxoplasmosis and concurrent porcine circovirus-2 infection in a pig,” Journal of Comparative Pathology, vol. 140, pp. 208–211, 2009.
  38. A. M. Assadi-Rad, J. C. New, and S. Patton, “Risk factors associated with transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to sows kept in different management systems in Tennessee,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 289–297, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Villari, G. Vesco, E. Petersen, A. Crispo, and W. Buffolano, “Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pigs bred in Sicily, Southern Italy,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 161, no. 1-2, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. M. Weigel, J. P. Dubey, A. M. Siegel et al., “Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Illinois in 1992,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 206, no. 11, pp. 1747–1751, 1995. View at Scopus
  41. T. Hove, P. Lind, and S. Mukaratirwa, “Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe,” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 231–237, 2005. View at Scopus
  42. S. Solaymani-Mohammadi and W. A. Petri, “Zoonotic implications of the swine-transmitted protozoal infections,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 140, no. 3-4, pp. 189–203, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. P. Dubey, “A review of toxoplasmosis in pigs,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 181–223, 1986. View at Scopus
  44. J. P. Dubey, D. E. Hill, J. L. Jones et al., “Prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in beef, chicken, and pork from retail meat stores in the United States: risk assessment to consumers,” Journal of Parasitology, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1082–1093, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus