Table 2: Stress echocardiography induced variation in cardiovascular hemodynamics.

(%) or mean ± SDExercise stress echoDipyridamole stress echoDobutamine stress echo

Patients172 (19%)482 (54%)237 (27%)
Age, years 63 ± 1266 ± 10
Males 133 (77%)287 (60%)*173 (73%)
Body mass index (kg/m2)1.87 ± 0.181.85 ± 0.2*1.81 ± 0.18
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)
 Rest53 ± 1450 ± 17*39 ± 15
 Peak stress60 ± 1757 ± 18*51 ± 17
 Reserve7 ± 97 ± 8*12 ± 9
Heart rate × systolic blood pressure
 Rest9,546 ± 2,4619,579 ± 2,393*8,253 ± 2,058
 Peak stress22,652 ± 6,43 11,035 ± 2,749*18,027 ± 6,118
 Reserve13,105 ± 5,87 1,455 ± 2,131*9,773 ± 6,219
I/ I
 Rest1.33 ± 0.701.23 ± 0.70*0.79 ± 0.56
 Peak stress2 ± 1.341.76 ± 1.15*1.36 ± 0.98
 Reserve0.67 ± 0.960.53 ± 0.780.57 ± 0.62
I, mmHg·mL−1·m−2
 Rest5.86 ± 4.215.37 ± 3.21*3.17 ± 2.42
 Peak stress12 ± 9. 6.28 ± 4.176.46 ± 6.12
 Reserve6.18 ± 6. 0.91 ± 2.46*3.29 ± 4.17
I, mmHg·mL−1·m−2
 Rest4.28 ± 1.3 4.97 ± 2.82*4.13 ± 1.5
 Peak stress6.1 ± 2. 4.19 ± 2.564.35 ± 1.76
 Reserve −0.78 ± 1.42*0.22 ± 1.62
SWI, mmHg·mL−1·m−2
 Rest3,465 ± 1,1563,594 ± 1,457*3,082 ± 1,235
 Peak stress4,963 ± 1,70 3,624 ± 1,440*4,274 ± 1,665
 Reserve1,498 ± 1,60 30 ± 1,035*1,192 ± 1,330
PVA, mmHg·mL−1·m−2
 Rest5,248 ± 1,9475,971 ± 2,1595,844 ± 2,234
 Peak stress6,852 ± 2,2095,202 ± 2,018*6,728 ± 2,598
 Reserve1,604 ± 1,79 −395 ± 1,226*884 ± 1,769
Stroke volume index (mL/m2)
 Rest29.6 ± 8.629.3 ± 10.628.6 ± 9.5
 Peak stress30.2 ± 8.732.3 ± 11.632.9 ± 10.2
 Reserve 3.1 ± 7.54.4 ± 9.1
End-systolic pressure (mmHg)
 Rest 122 ± 20*107 ± 18
 Peak stress 112 ± 19*130 ± 28
 Reserve −10 ± 15*23 ± 25
Heart rate (bpm)
 Rest73 ± 1471 ± 1470 ± 14
 Peak stress 89 ± 16*123 ± 24
 Reserve 18 ± 13*53 ± 28
Cardiac index (L·min·m−2)
 Rest2.152 ± 7042.044 ± 7891.985 ± 746
 Peak stress 2.847 ± 1.106*4.008 ± 1.338
 Reserve 803 ± 795*2.023 ± 1.101
SVR (dyn·s−1·cm−5)
 Rest1,972 ± 69 2,287 ± 1,1132,187 ± 820
 Peak stress1,576 ± 8801,524 ± 911*1,213 ± 481
 Reserve −763 ± 668*−974 ± 652

Significant differences between exercise and both dipyridamole and dobutamine patients; significant differences between exercise and dobutamine pts; *significant differences between dipyridamole and dobutamine patients; significant differences between exercise and dipyridamole patients.
I/ I: ventricular-arterial coupling ratio; I: effective arterial elastance; I: left ventricular end-systolic elastance; PVA: pressure-volume area; SVR: systemic vascular resistance; and SWI: stroke work index.