248608.fig.001
Figure 1: Activation of MPTP to the directly acting neurotoxin MPP+, which is uptaken by dopaminergic cells via DAT (dopamine active transporter) and produces neurotoxicity and cell death. β-Carbolinium cations (βC+) are toxic analogs of MPP+ that may arise from 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carbolines.