- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 261698, 6 pages
Fitness and Adiposity Are Independently Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth
1Institute for Clinical Exercise and Health Science, School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton ML3 0JB, UK
2The Physical Activity Exchange, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, 62 Great Crosshall Street, Liverpool L3 2AT, UK
3Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX D3700, USA
4Department of Kinesiology, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76402, USA
Received 2 April 2013; Revised 10 July 2013; Accepted 11 July 2013
Academic Editor: Abdurrahman Saydut
Copyright © 2013 Duncan S. Buchan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- S. A. Anderssen, A. R. Cooper, C. Riddoch et al., “Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor for clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children independent of country, age and sex,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 526–531, 2007.
- L. B. Andersen, L. Sardinha, K. Froberg, C. J. Riddoch, A. S. Page, and S. A. Anderssen, “Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal: the European Youth Heart Study,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 3, supplement 1, pp. 58–66, 2008.
- U. Ekelund, S. A. Anderssen, K. Froberg, L. B. Sardinha, L. B. Andersen, and S. Brage, “Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1832–1840, 2007.
- I. Ferreira, R. J. van de Laar, M. H. Prins, J. W. Twisk, and C. D. Stehouwer, “Carotid stiffness in young adults: a life-course analysis of its early determinants: The Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study,” Hypertension, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2012.
- J. Juhola, C. G. Magnussen, J. S. A. Viikari et al., “Tracking of serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 159, no. 4, pp. 584–590, 2011.
- S. C. Savva, M. Tornaritis, M. E. Savva et al., “Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1453–1458, 2000.
- P. Zimmet, G. K. M. M. Alberti, F. Kaufman et al., “The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents—an IDF consensus report,” Pediatric Diabetes, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 299–306, 2007.
- J. C. Eisenmann, “Aerobic fitness, fatness and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 1723–1729, 2007.
- E. G. Artero, J. R. Ruiz, F. B. Ortega et al., “Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study,” Pediatric Diabetes, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 704–712, 2011.
- D. Martinez-Gomez, J. C. Eisenmann, S. Gomez-Martinez et al., “Associations of physical activity and fitness with adipocytokines in adolescents: the AFINOS study,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 252–259, 2012.
- C. Antoniades, A. S. Antonopoulos, D. Tousoulis, and C. Stefanadis, “Adiponectin: from obesity to cardiovascular disease: etiology and Pathophysiology,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 269–279, 2009.
- P. Balagopal, D. George, H. Yarandi, V. Funanage, and E. Bayne, “Reversal of obesity-related hypoadiponectinemia by lifestyle intervention: a controlled, randomized study in obese adolescents,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 6192–6197, 2005.
- M. Valle, R. Martos, F. Gascón, R. Cañete, M. A. Zafra, and R. Morales, “Low-grade systemic inflammation, hypoadiponectinemia and a high concentration of leptin are present in very young obese children, and correlate with metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2005.
- L. Soriano-Guillén, B. Hernández-García, J. Pita, N. Domínguez-Garrido, G. del Río-Camacho, and A. Rovira, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is a good marker of cardiovascular risk in obese children and adolescents,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. R1–R4, 2008.
- J. A. Morrison, C. J. Glueck, S. R. Daniels, P. Wang, D. M. Stroop, and P. S. Horn, “High-sensitivity C reactive protein: associations with cardiovascular risk factors and tracking in female adolescents and young adults,” ISRN Pediatrics, vol. 2011, Article ID 707206, 9 pages, 2011.
- M. Ledoux, J. Lambert, B. A. Reeder, and J.-P. Després, “A comparative analysis of weight to height and waist to hip circumference indices as indicators of the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 157, supplement 1, pp. S32–S38, 1997.
- J. M. Tanner and R. H. Whitehouse, “Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 170–179, 1976.
- L. A. Léger, D. Mercier, C. Gadoury, and J. Lambert, “The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 93–101, 1988.
- D. S. Buchan, S. Ollis, N. E. Thomas, and J. S. Baker, “The influence of a high intensity physical activity intervention on a selection of health related outcomes: an ecological approach,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, article 8, 2010.
- W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 499–502, 1972.
- D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, A. S. Rudenski, et al., “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985.
- F. Barzi and M. Woodward, “Imputations of missing values in practice: results from imputations of serum cholesterol in 28 cohort studies,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 34–45, 2004.
- Z. Punthakee, E. E. Delvin, J. O'Loughlin et al., “Adiponectin, adiposity, and insulin resistance in children and adolescents,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 2119–2125, 2006.
- T. Kawano, T. Saito, T. Yasu et al., “Close association of hypoadiponectinemia with arteriosclerosis obliterans and ischemic heart disease,” Metabolism, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 653–656, 2005.
- J. C. Winer, T. L. Zern, S. E. Taksali et al., “Adiponectin in childhood and adolescent obesity and its association with inflammatory markers and components of the metabolic syndrome,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 4415–4423, 2006.
- N. Ouchi, S. Kihara, T. Funahashi et al., “Reciprocal association of C-reactive protein with adiponectin in blood stream and adipose tissue,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 671–674, 2003.
- J. Kim, R. Bhattacharjee, L. Kheirandish-Gozal, et al., “Insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged obese and nonobese children,” International Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 2010, Article ID 846098, 6 pages, 2010.
- P. Balagopal, D. George, N. Patton et al., “Lifestyle-only intervention attenuates the inflammatory state associated with obesity: a randomized controlled study in adolescents,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 342–348, 2005.
- L. B. Andersen, K. Müller, S. Eiberg et al., “Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children,” Metabolism, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 561–566, 2010.
- L. Gilardini, P. G. McTernan, A. Girola et al., “Adiponectin is a candidate marker of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 401–407, 2006.
- Y. Ogawa, T. Kikuchi, K. Nagasaki, M. Hiura, Y. Tanaka, and M. Uchiyama, “Usefulness of serum adiponectin level as a diagnostic marker of metabolic syndrome in obese Japanese children,” Hypertension Research, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2005.
- N. C. Bush, B. E. Darnell, R. A. Oster, M. I. Goran, and B. A. Gower, “Adiponectin is lower among African Americans and is independently related to insulin sensitivity in children and adolescents,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2772–2778, 2005.
- A. Hurtig-Wennlöf, J. R. Ruiz, M. Harro, and M. Sjöström, “Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 575–581, 2007.
- F. B. Ortega, J. R. Ruiz, A. Hurtig-Wennlöf et al., “Cardiovascular fitness modifies the associations between physical activity and abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 256–262, 2010.
- J. R. Ruiz, F. B. Ortega, D. Meusel, and M. Sjöström, “Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in school-aged children: a call for the further development of public health strategies with emphasis on fitness,” Journal of Public Health, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 171–177, 2007.
- N. S. Rizzo, J. R. Ruiz, A. Hurtig-Wennlöf, F. B. Ortega, and M. Sjöström, “Relationship of physical activity, fitness, and fatness with clustered metabolic risk in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 388–394, 2007.
- J. L. Kuk and S. Lee, “Independent associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal obesity with metabolic risk in adolescents and adults,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2061–2063, 2010.
- C. Boreham, J. Twisk, L. Murray, M. Savage, J. J. Strain, and G. Cran, “Fitness, fatness, and coronary heart disease risk in adolescents: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 270–274, 2001.
- C. L. Martins, L. B. Andersen, L. M. Aires, J. C. Ribeiro, and J. A. Mota, “Association between fitness, different indicators of fatness, and clustered cardiovascular diseases risk factors in Portuguese children and adolescents,” Open Sport Sciences Journal, vol. 3, pp. 149–154, 2010.