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Figure 8: Representative images of hABMSCs after Alizarin red and von Kossa staining treatment in static condition (a), at 20% duty cycle (b), and at 50% duty cycle under LIPUS treatment (c) at 2-3 weeks after the addition of osteogenic differentiation media. Representative optical microscopic images of hABMSCs after Alizarin red staining treatment in static condition (A), at 20% duty cycle under LIPUS (B), and at 50% duty cycle under LIPUS (C) at 2-3 weeks were indicated (d). Mineralization images of von Kossa staining are shown in Figure 8(e). The short-pulsed duty cycle group was interestingly increased compared to the longer duty cycle group. Representative images were shown in Figures 8(d) and 8(e). Figure 8(f) shows the optical density value of a mineralized nodule (absorbance of 562 nm) measured after destaining treatment.