Table 2: Changes within and between groups (ITT analysis).

OutcomesNMES + ExExDifference between means (95% CI), effect size value between groups
At 8 weeksChange (95% CI)At 8 weeksChange (95% CI)

NRS (0–10)* −2.70 (−3.56 to −1.84) −3.17 (−4.23 to −2.10)0.42 (−0.87 to 1.72),
0.15
0.52
TUG* −1.36 (−1.84 to −0.87) −2.00 (−2.54 to −1.46)0.56 (−0.15 to 1.27),
0.39
0.12
WOMAC
pain*
−2.97 (−4.22 to −1.72) −3.87 (−5.02 to −2.72)0.92 (−0.71 to 2.55),
0.23
0.26
WOMAC
stiffness*
−1.34 (−1.9 to −0.74) −1.51 (−2.36 to −0.65)0.25 (−0.78 to 1.29),
0.10
0.63
WOMAC
function*
−8.02 (−11.34 to −4.69) −10.95 (−14.84 to −7.05)3.14 (−2.02 to 8.29),
0.26
0.23

Abbreviation: *data are presented as mean ± SD. ITT: intention to treat; CI: confidence interval; NMES + Ex: NMES combined with exercise, Ex: exercise; NRS: Numerical Rating Scale; TUG: Timed Up and Go Test; WOMAC: Western Ontario McMaster Universities; denotes a statistical significant difference, .