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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 279371, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/279371
Review Article

Recent Advances in Particulate Matter and Nanoparticle Toxicology: A Review of the In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 17666, UAE
2Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo, Norway
3Aerobiology Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences Center, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
4Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México. Avenido San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, 14080 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 7 March 2013; Revised 8 May 2013; Accepted 22 May 2013

Academic Editor: Tim Nawrot

Copyright © 2013 Abderrahim Nemmar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Epidemiological and clinical studies have linked exposure to particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, which may be registered as increased mortality and morbidity from various cardiopulmonary diseases. Despite the evidence relating PM to health effects, the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms causing such effects are still not fully characterized. Two main approaches are used to elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity. One is the use of in vivo experimental models, where various effects of PM on respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems can be evaluated. To more closely examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the different physiological effects, the use of various in vitro models has proven to be valuable. In the present review, we discuss the current advances on the toxicology of particulate matter and nanoparticles based on these techniques.