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Figure 2: Schematization of the main acute, subacute, and chronic effects induced by inhaled particles and nanoparticles. In the acute side it is interesting to highlight that a high-caloric- and fat-rich diet provides a scenario facilitating proinflammatory effects of particles. Also, Tnymoquinone, eugenol, simstatin, and lovastin have a protective effect in vivo. In the subacute and chronic side, it is interesting to highlight the presence of tissue alterations, lung infiltration by T cells, and increases in the risk of COPD.