|In vitro evidence supporting the observed in vivo effects|
|In vivo observed effect||In vitro evidence|
|Oxidative stress||ROS increases via NADPH-oxidase |
in lung epithelial cell exposed to PM.
|Local and systemic inflammation||Secretion of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNFa, |
MCP-1, and so forth, by lung cells,
macrophages, and cocultures.
|Hyperplasia||Proliferative stimuli induced by |
extracts of DEP components.
|COPD||Increased cytotoxicity on exposed |
|Systemic and endothelial dysfunction||Endothelial cell activation by direct |
contact with particles or indirectly
induced in cocultures where
and other cell are exposed.
|Particle translocation||Changes in the TEER values related |
to tight junctions
transepithelial cells network
alterations in the GJIC.