Figure 6: Expression levels of Th1 (a), Th2 (b), proinflammatory (c), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (d) associated with the Taenia solium intestinal infection. Cytokine expression in duodenum and spleen tissue samples from tamoxifen-treated, vehicle-treated, and control hamsters was analyzed. An increase in the expression of IL-4, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was strongly associated with the Taenia solium intestinal infection. However, no significant changes in this cytokine expression pattern were observed among experimental groups. Control = Nonmanipulated animals, infected with four viable cysticerci each; Vehicle = animals subcutaneously treated with 0.06% ethanol-saline solution, infected with four viable cysticerci each; Tam = animals subcutaneously treated with 1 mg/Kg BW tamoxifen, infected with four viable cysticerci each. Data were pooled from two independent experiments using ten animals per group in each experimental series and cysticerci obtained from two different pigs. Differences were considered significant when .