About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 290609, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/290609
Research Article

Report on Influenza A and B Viruses: Their Coinfection in a Saudi Leukemia Patient

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Biotechnology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, P.O. Box 13100, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

Received 9 April 2013; Accepted 22 July 2013

Academic Editor: Jiing-Kuan Yee

Copyright © 2013 Fahad N. Almajhdi and Ghazanfar Ali. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Arola, O. Ruuskanen, T. Ziegler, and T. T. Salmi, “Respiratory virus infections during anticancer treatment in children,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 690–694, 1995. View at Scopus
  2. M. C. Mendoza Sánchez, J. Ruiz-Contreras, J. L. Vivanco et al., “Respiratory virus infections in children with cancer or HIV infection,” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 154–159, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. A. Cunha, “Swine Influenza (H1N1) Pneumonia: clinical Considerations,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 203–228, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. L. Hicks, R. F. Chemaly, and D. P. Kontoyiannis, “Common community respiratory viruses in patients with cancer: more than just “common colds”,” Cancer, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 2576–2587, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Whimbey, “Community respiratory virus infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer,” American Journal of Medicine A, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 10–18, 1997. View at Scopus
  6. H. M. Yousuf, J. Englund, R. Couch, et al., “Influenza among hospitalized adults with leukemia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1095–1099, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Launes, S. Rives, A. Català et al., “Pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 149, no. 6, pp. 874–878, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. E. Lapinsky, “H1N1 novel influenza A in pregnant and immunocompromised patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. e52–e57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Falchi, C. Arena, L. Andreoletti et al., “Dual infections by influenza A/H3N2 and B viruses and by influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses during winter 2007, Corsica Island, France,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 148–151, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Franz, O. Adams, R. Willems et al., “Correlation of viral load of respiratory pathogens and co-infections with disease severity in children hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 239–245, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Shimada, K. Sadamasu, T. Shinkai et al., “Virological analysis of a case of dual infection by influenza A (H3N2) and B viruses,” Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 67–68, 2006. View at Scopus
  12. S. Toda, R. Okamoto, T. Nishida et al., “Isolation of influenza A/H3 and B viruses from an influenza patient: confirmation of co-infection by two influenza viruses,” Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 142–143, 2006. View at Scopus
  13. WHO, “Review of the 2010-2011 winter influenza season, northern hemisphere,” Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 86, pp. 222–225, 2011.
  14. E. C. Claas, A. J. van Milaan, M. J. W. Sprenger et al., “Prospective application of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing influenza infections in respiratory samples from a children's hospital,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 2218–2221, 1993. View at Scopus
  15. J. C. Hierholzer, M. T. Suggs, and E. C. Hall, “Standardized viral hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. II. Description and statistical evaluation,” Applied microbiology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 824–833, 1969. View at Scopus
  16. M. T. Coiras, J. C. Aguilar, M. L. García, I. Casas, and P. Pérez-Breña, “Simultaneous detection of fourteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by two multiplex reverse transcription nested-PCR assays,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 484–495, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Bellau-Pujol, A. Vabret, L. Legrand et al., “Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 126, no. 1-2, pp. 53–63, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Eshaghi, J. Blair, L. Burton et al., “Characterization of an influenza A and influenza B co-infection of a patient in a long-term care facility with co-circulating influenza A and influenza B,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. e127–e128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Calistri, C. Salata, M. Cosentino et al., “Report of two cases of influenza virus A/H1N1v and B co-infection during the 2010/2011 epidemics in the Italian Veneto Region,” Virology Journal, vol. 8, p. 502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Brouard, F. Freymuth, A. Vabret, M. Jokic, B. Guillois, and J. F. Duhamel, “Simultaneous viral infections in immunocompetent infants with bronchiolitis: a prospective study,” Archives de Pediatrie, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 531–535, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. P. Glezen, A. Paredes, and L. H. Taber, “Influenza in children. Relationship to other respiratory agents,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 243, no. 13, pp. 1345–1349, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. A. Madhi, B. Schoub, K. Simmank, N. Blackburn, and K. P. Klugman, “Increased burden of respiratory viral associated severe lower respiratory tract infections in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. X. Xu, S. E. Lindstrom, M. W. Shaw et al., “Reassortment and evolution of current human influenza A and B viruses,” Virus Research, vol. 103, no. 1-2, pp. 55–60, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. W. Ortbals, H. Liebhaber, and C. A. Presant, “Influenza immunization of adult patients with malignant diseases,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 552–557, 1977. View at Scopus
  25. W. Lo, E. Whimbey, L. Elting, R. Couch, F. Cabanillas, and G. Bodey, “Antibody response to a two-dose influenza vaccine regimen in adult lymphoma patients on chemotherapy,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 778–782, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus